Wednesday, July 19, 2017

Still Searching for Pastor Iap--China's First Chinese Pastor

Pastor Iap Yap China's First  Chinese Protestant PastorAhoy from Amoy! (Historic Xiamen Island)

On Oct. 31 (Halloween!), 2016, I posted info about Emily, a descendant of Pastor Iap (Yap) seeking more info on this man, who was China's first Chinese Protestant Pastor. Today, another descendant, who met Emily's Aunt Dee years ago. I post his email below (with his name and email address redacted). If you have more info on Professor Iap, please provide it!

Enjoy Amoy!

Dr. Bill
School of Management, Xiamen University
Amazon eBook
"Discover Xiamen"

Bill Brown Xiamen University

Saturday, March 4, 2017

Quanzhou, Zayton, Cayton--Why English Research on China is tricky

Ancient Quanzhou zayton Zaiton 泉州双塔Ahoy from Amoy! (Historic Xiamen, China).
One reason it is so hard to research Chinese cities in Western historical texts is that foreigners had so many ways to spell cities' names! Consider Marco Polo's and Ibn Battuta's legendary port of Quanzhou, the world's greatest port in the Middle Ages, which the Arabs called Zayton (and which was probably the inspiration for the story of Aladdin, who was Chinese) had probably two dozen spellings.

Even Amoy--historic Xiamen--was spelled many ways, including Emowi, Emoui, Emeng, etc. My favorite was from a 160-year-old map that spelled it Emony. (way ahead of their time: eMoney).

Here are variations of foreigners' spellings of Quanzhou, Enjoy!

زيتون (Arabic) Zayton, Zaytiin, Zaytun, Zaytûn, Zaytún, Zaiton, Zaitun, Zaitûn, Zaitún, Zaitūn, Zeiton, Zeitūn Zeitûn, , Caiton, Çaiton, Çayton, Chinchew, Chincheo, Chincheo fu, Chincheo fou, Ch‘üan-chou, Chuan-chiu, Choan-Chiu, Chwanchow-foo, Chwan-chau fu, Chwanchew, Chwanchew foo, Chwanchew fu, Chwanchew fou, Tswanchau, Tswanchau fou, Tswanchau foo, Tswanchau fu, T'swanchau, T'swan-chau fu, T'swan-chau foo, T'swan-chau fou, Ts'üan-chou, Ts'üan-chou foo, Ts'üan-chou fou, Ts'üan-chou fu, Tswanchow, Tswanchow-foo, Tswanchow-fu, Ts’wan-chow, Ts’wanchow-foo, Ts'wan-chow-fu, Ts'wan-chiu, Ts'wan-chiu foo, Ts'wan-chiu fu, Ts'wan-chiu fou, Thsiouan-tchéou, Thsiouan-tchéou fou, Thsiouan-tchéou foo,  Thsiouan-tchéou fu, Thsíouan-chéou, Thsíouan-chéou fu, Thsíouan-chéou foo, Thsíouan-chéou-fou, Shanju 等等!

Enjoy Amoy!

Dr. Bill
School of Management, Xiamen University
Amazon eBook
"Discover Xiamen"

Bill Brown Xiamen University

Friday, February 24, 2017

In Search of Yeh Wen-lan (Yap)叶文澜: Amoy Electric, Foochow Arsenal, Amoy Foodstuffs, etc.)

淘化 厦门 鼓浪屿 Amoy Sauce Xiamen Gulangyu
Ahoy from Amoy! (historic Xiamen, China).

I just received a fascinating email asking for sources on Yeh Wen-lan [叶文澜, or 叶清渠]. He died in Taiwan in 1887 or 1888). If you have any documents, photos, etc. about the him or Yap family (also spelled Ye, Yap, Iap), please share them! He said Yeh made a fortune in the 1849 California gold rush, returned to make another fortune in Amoy's tea and baking, at the request of General Zuo Zongtang 左宗棠 supplied arms and food supplies to fight against the Taiping rebels. General Zuo was so impressed he recommended Yeh as Chief Supervisor of Asia's largest shipyard (Foochow Arsenal, in Mawei, east of Fuzhou, 2,200 years ago was the site of China's first maritime shipbuilding). When Yeh went to work for the Fujian government, his family became the HSBC's comprador until the 1950s (HSBC knew him as Ye Deshui  叶德水).

The Yeh family founded Amoy Electric Lights, Amoy Water Supply, etc. Amazing! Mr, Ye's younger brother, Ye Qingrui [叶清瑞], moved to Kaohsiung, Taiwan [高雄台湾】 in 1887, prospered in business, and his family was very influential until 1945.

Mr. Yeh's had many celebrated descendants in both Xiamen andTaiwan, including Li Yongjin 李永进 who started Taiwan's Daewoo Information Company 大宇资讯公司, among many others.

淘化 厦门 鼓浪屿 Amoy Sauce Xiamen GulangyuThe man who emailed me is now searching for more info about the Yap family. He's already written a book "The Legendary Yap Family in Amoy" but is trying to search out more information and asks for sources.

He also said the Yap [in the 19th century, spelled Iap) family started Amoy Foodstuffs, which began as Tao Fa 淘化大同 on Gulangyu Islet in 1908 and made soymilk and soy sauce),That was a surprise to me. I understood it was started by Mr, Huang Tingyuan (黄廷元), whose former home is now a Gulangyu hotel near the piano museum (#23-25 Xin Lu 鼓浪屿鼓新路23-25号. But many of these families were related, often through marriage. Today, Amoy Foodstuffs is based in Hong Kong (Tai Po, New Territories) and makes the famous Amoy Soy Sauce and others.

Loading coolies Amoy Xiamen 19th century 厦门苦力鼓浪屿
The question that he (and so many others) have is where to find more information. Too often people ask this and don't even know the Chinese name of their ancestor (which makes it almost impossible to research, as many have Anglicized names that have no relation to the original Chinese name). Even without the Chinese name, it is sometimes possible. I had one family from the Philippines send me a 1940s family photo, which Xiamen Daily published--and members of the family in Xiamen recognized the photo! That was quite a family reunion when they returned from Amoy to meet relatives none had seen in over 70 years.

Generally, it is difficult to find old records in Xiamen because many were destroyed by the Japanese invasion and occupation in 1938, and those that survived were consigned to bonfires on Gulangyu during the Cultural Revolution. Now that Gulangyu is applying for UNESCO World Heritage Site status (should get it in 2017), they deeply regret it. Almost all of my materials have come from abroad--books, old photos, maps, journals, diaries, magazines, etc. bought from dealers in dozens of countries, or else given to me by the descendants of Chinese and foreigners who lived in Amoy from the 1840s to 1940s (some gave them to me; some allowed me to scan the materials).

Many people searching their roots have visited me in Xiamen and I've shown them around Xiamen and Quanzhou just to the north, which was the ancient start of the Maritime Silk Road / Route. Most overseas Chinese from South Fujian are from South Quanzhou's Jinjiang. 1000 years ago, Quanzhou was called Zayton by the Arabs. Marco Polo, when sailing from there, said that for every 1 ship in Christendom carrying peppers (spices), Zayton had 100 ships. We get our English word "satin" from Zayton, and even Sinbad the sailor was said to have visited Zayton, which famed Arab explorer Ibn Battuta said was the greatest port in the world and produced the world's best porcelain (their Dehua produced the famous White Porcelain-- blanc 'de Chine).

One family was descendants of Pastor Yap (Iap), the first Chinese pastor of Amoy (so the first in China, since Xiamen had China's first church). And one of the most memorable foreigners was Mary Thompson from England--daughter of the last British Consul of Amoy. I helped many of these family find information primarily through Amoy mission archives (Holland, Michigan and New Jersey) and archives at universities such as Stanford, Yale, etc.

 The family of Yeh Wen-lan is in luck because they know so many particulars about him and can visit Mawei's Fuzhou Arsenal, contact the Amoy foodstuffs company, or visit Gulangyu Islet and talk with historians who are helping with the UNESCO World Heritage project (they'd be delighted, I'm sure, as this would also provide them more material as well for the museums we're hoping to set up).

As far as immigration records--those are hard to find as most were destroyed (and the U.S. lost most of its records when the first Amoy Consulate burned down in November, 1904).

As to his question (below) about coolies--Amoy, in 1947, had first shipment of coolies. In that first year, 8,000 coolies were shipped to Cuba alone to work the sugar fields. In 1849, 75 were sent to labor in Peru's guano pits, and in 1850, several thousand were sent to the railroad work in Panama. Many even paid for their passage, thinking they'd be laborers, not knowing they'd be stripped, have their destination painted on their back, and be packed tighter than African slaves, 1/3 or more dying enroute. No wonder the profitable opium and coolie trade (opium into China, coolies out) was called "Pigs and Poison Trade." While many Westerns sighed sadly over such atrocities, nothing was done until 400 Chinese who paid to work in San Franciso learned they were being shipped on the Robert Bowne' as slaves to Peru's deadly Chincha islands, where few survived one year working the guano pits. Sickness broke out on the packed ship, ten sick coolies were thrown overboard and the rest scrubbed down like pigs. They mutinied, killing the officers. Then the Westerners united to find them and bring these "terrorists" to "justice."

Ahhh... no wonder in school they never taught us anything about the U.S.' and Europe's history in China during the 19th century and first half of the 20th.

Back to the point at hand: if anyone has any information about Yeh Wen-lan--texts, photos, etc.--please feel free to share it. And please read the letter of explanation below....

Enjoy Amoy!

Dr. Bill
Academic Director, SMXMU OneMBA
School of Management, Xiamen University

Dear Dr. Bill,

I am writing to you to seek help in my research on a famous family in the late 19th century and early 20th century in Amoy.

My wife was born in Gulansu in late 1960s. My father-in-law’s great grand father was Yeh Wen-lan, who was said to have gone to San Francisco during the 1849 Gold Rush, made a fortune, coming home and started his own business in tea and banking. He even owned boat fleet travelling to south east Asia, Taiwan etc.

At the request of General Zuo Zong-tang, he managed to buy arms and prepare food supplies for the government troops to fight the rebels in the 1860s taking advantage of his connections with foreigners. General Zuo was so impressed that Yeh Wen-lan was sent as Chief Supervisor to build the largest shipyard in Asia at the time – Foochow Arsenal where he worked for 10 years. He was a successful business man and later became a high ranking government official. His position was slightly below the provincial governor.

While he worked for the government in Fuzhou, his family business was run by his sons. The Yeh family was HSBC’s comprador until 1950s. The Yeh family were also founders of many of Amoy’s early and modern utilities companies, such as Amoy Electric Lights, Water Supply and Amoy Foodstuff etc.

However, many documents, photographs were destroyed during the cultural revolution. After Yeh Wen-lan’s grand parents died, few people knew about their family’s glory past. My father-in-law did not even know the name of his great grand father, not to mention the stories.

I spent two years digging into the family history and completed a book called The Legendary Yap Family in Amoy.

I believe I will find more information from the west in sources like:

US/Britain consul reports in Amoy and Foochow
Missionary reports/accounts in Amoy and Foochow
Britain and US library archives/books

I attempted to locate Yeh Wen-lan’s immigration records around the 1850s but failed

I worked in Xiamen from 2013 to 2015 but I didn’t know you until I came across your website recently, otherwise I’d definitely go visit you for advice.

I was wondering if you could let me know how I could further my study by leveraging online British or American resources. I am also interested in the history societies and organizations/historians who specialize in 19th century Chinese American Coolly trade, Chinese laborers During Gold etc.

Thank you very much in advance.

[Name redacted]

Enjoy Amoy!
 Amazon eBook "Discover Xiamen"

Bill Brown    Xiamen University

Wednesday, February 22, 2017

Betty of the Consulate (1860s Amoy, daughter of Amoy Consul Trowbridge)

Betty of the Consulate story of daughter of Amoy Consul General Trowbridge in 1860s
Betty of the Consulate story of daughter of Amoy Consul General Trowbridge in 1860s Ahoy from Amoy (historic Xiamen, China).
I just purchased a book written by Betty Trowbridge, daughter of the U.S. Amoy Consul in the 1860s. Inside the cover is inscribed, "Betty and Billy are ready. Come, let's go to China with them! Lydia Jones Trowbridge." (I'm assuming Lydia was her daughter?).

It was published in 1929 by Doubleday and given to someone as a Christmas present in 1934. It has no photos, but nice drawings--a children's book, but just over 200 pages, so good content (it says "For children up to eight years," which is just about my speed).

The inside cover says,
"Betty was five years old and her small brother, Billy, was just three when they left San Francisco on a sailing vessel bound for Amoy where their was was to be a consul for the United States.

"China in the 1860's was a very exciting place to Betty and Billy--and they were thrilled by the strange nurses, the coolies with their long queues, the ever-present straw sandals, the solemn-faced little children, the amazing jugglers, the strange houses and hosts, the colorful feast days and holidays.

"This story of Betty and Billy in China is written as the author remembers it when she was a little girl there--the daughter of an Americana consul appointed by President Grant--just as Betty's Father was."

When I have time, I'll scan and upload it (as it is beyond copyright, I trust).

Betty of the Consulate story of daughter of Amoy Consul General Trowbridge in 1860s
Click image above to enlarge
Enjoy Amoy!

Dr. Bill
School of Management, Xiamen University
Amazon eBook
"Discover Xiamen"

Bill Brown Xiamen University

Monday, December 5, 2016

Bamboo Church founder's descendent's letter

Ahoy from Amoy! (Historic Xiamen, China).
Bamboo Church Chapel Amoy Xiamen Amoy Mission

I've just received a couple of interesting letters from a man who is a descendant of people who were very influential in the Amoy Mission and also pioneering education not only in Amoy but also in the Philippines (they founded Xiamen's Bamboo Church, built the first road connecting Xiamen to Fuzhou City, founded the Ta Teng Drugstore in Xiamen and the Amoy Foods, which moved to Hong Kong, helped Sun Yat-sen overthrow the Qing Dynasty, etc. I attach his letter (with his full name removed; if you'd like to contact him, send me your contact info and I'll forward it).

Enjoy Amoy!

Dr. Bill 

December 5 (Monday) 2016
Dear brother Bill:

Thanks for intro opportunities around Xiamen...  My CV was sent under a separate email following the 1st. Indeed E. W. Tan my sister has been to Xiamen regularly and we still have many direct relatives in Xiamen. Glad to know your strong affiliation with Xiamen our mother home town. Our affiliation/legacy runs over 100 years with Xiamen as my grandfather Dr. Chen Tien En was a famous surgeon in Xiamen the Tatung Drugstore was one time owned by our family he was Dr. Sun Yet Sun's classmate he was the head for Fukkien Province together with Dr. Sun Yet Sun in overthrowing the last Manchus Dynasty and Dr. Sun Yet Sun established the Republic of China.

He had great contribution to the infrastructure of Xiamen and the old 1st road connecting Xiamen and Fuzhou City was build by my grandfather and donated to the gov't he died in 1949 of old age. As founder of the "bamboo church", which now has 7000 church members and planning on building a larger sanctuary sitting 4000.00. The lady pastor Chen Man Li visited our family in Manila we also run a large mission high school (K-12) plus now a Grace Christian College my brother Dr. James Lee Tan is college president. Mother Mrs. Julia Lee Tan and Dr. & Mrs. Edwin & Spahr Baptist missionaries from Philadelphia, Penna USA founded in 1950.

Dr. Chen Tien Un would go weekends to rural Fukien heal the sick/establish over 200 churches throughout Fukien Province but only  the Bamboo Church was revived in 1985. When I visited The Bamboo Church there were 150 members and I was asked to preach and play my piano accordion on Sunday servies. I was also invited to play my piano accordion solo numbers at the Trinity Church, Kulangsu, Xiamen then during my academic lecture tour of China. My grandfather also founded the Amoy Canning Corporation (moved to Hongkong) and the 2nd largest paper mill of China in Futzou City which I visited with his large picture in lobby.

If you open the website Grace Christian College, Quezon City, Grace Villlage, Philippines you might see the photos of the founders with mother Mrs. Julia Lee Tan and Dr & Mrs. Edwin/Helen Spahr.I have written Intl Markering books used in my MBA courses and am particularly good in CASE ANALYSIS in MBA classes in "Organizational Behavior" and "Intl Marketing Strategies". You mentioned arriving In Xiamen Univ 1988 whereas, I was invited for the one month Intl Marketing Strategies series of lectures by Xiamen Univ College of Economics, Dept of Intl Trade.
The president daughter was then head of the Marketing Dept of Xiamen University...

My name, Prof. J. L. T. was also placed in China website as once consultant to Xiamen City Major when Huli Industrial Zone just opened for foreign investments.

Thank you will plan on visiting Xiamen by end January, 2017 and hope to meet you at Xiamen University.

Best regards,

Prof. J.L. T.

School of Management, Xiamen University
Amazon eBook
"Discover Xiamen"

Bill Brown Xiamen University

Monday, October 31, 2016

Pastor Iap Han Chiong -- China's First Pastor (Amoy) 葉漢章牧師

葉漢章牧師 Pastor Iap Han Chiong first Chinese pastor Amoy China churchAhoy from Amoy! (historic Xiamen, China).

I received an interesting letter today from a 5th generation descendant of Pastor Iap Han Chiong, the first Chinese pastor in Amoy (and given that the Amoy Mission had China's first Protestant church, that pretty much makes Pastor Iap China's first Chinese pastor.

Iap is of course mentioned a lot in my old books and letters, and later I will post more about him. For now, here is Emily's letter. If you have more information about Pastor Iap or others in old Amoy, please share it (I just scanned 184 photos from the photo album of Andrew Bonthius, who was a doctor at Hope Hospital on Amoy's Gulangyu Islet from 1909 to 1915 and who built the Hope Hospital chapel as a memorial to his mother; very exciting to see all those old photos--a big thanks to Andrew Bonthius' grandson--also named Andrew Bonthius).

Oct. 31, 2016 Email from Emily Cheng, 5th Generation Descendant of Pastor Iap Han Chiong 葉漢章牧師.   [again, if you have more info, please share it!]

Dear Mr. Bill,
Since I read your blog, I have some information for your interest. Perhaps you maybe able to add to your historical accounts.

We are the fifth generation of pastor Iap Han Chiong - who was the first pastor of the bamboo church. You can check with the bamboo church.

We still have relatives with photos of that generations who were the first midwives of gulangyi ( kolongsu island). My aunty ( now 96 residing in Vancouver canada was a student of the famous girls school founded by Dr.Talmage. Aunty Peggy Hwang has a hard copy of 40 years in southern China - an autobiography of DR. Talmage.

Dr. Talmage, Dutch reform pastor was the person who lead Rev yap Han Chiong whole family to Christ, as a matter of fact, I was told- my family- has become a gateway of missionaries staying over- in their mission trip- the house was 24 Chong Hua road in kulangyi.

Midwives - YAP ko new ( 葉姑娘) in the photos are when they, were in their teens  - 葉亮彩and 葉友益( she's called the first midwives of kulangyi ) and has delivered most babies in those times.

Here are the links of 300 over pages of the history of the set up of the girls school ( where my grandma and aunties were educated and how they have develop ROMANISED fookien language. Speak to Peggy Hwang who is now residing in San Francisco who can give you accurate accounts.. or my aunty Dee, in Vancouver who still recalls many stories.

I still have families from that region- that migrated to Australia like us.. my dad is 90, most of them are still fluent in speaking English and are students of the boys school Eng Hua in kulangyi.

Anyway, here's the book that may interest you - only 2 hard copies are available in the world - state library in the states ( Peggy will know as she has the other copy). Fortunately it's scanned - so here's the link to it. This book" 40 years in china" is written for Rev John van nest Talmage autobiography and about kolongsu island ( now is gulangyi)  PASTOR and published in 1894. A copy is kept in State library, USA

Page 303 Rev IAP Han Chiong
Page 201 photo of Sio-Ke valley
Page 275 photo of women school giok-tek now
Page 169 Rev IAP Han- Chiong 葉漢章牧師 family
David yap chi beng father is 葉克寬mother is 李淑義

Thank you, Emily, for your email! I'll post more from my own collection about Pastor Iap when I have time.

Pastor Iap, by the way, wrote a Tribute to John Van Nest Talmage, which gives insights into the values and character traits that Iap thought important. Click Here to read it.

Enjoy Amoy!

Dr. Bill
School of Management, Xiamen University
Amazon eBook
"Discover Xiamen"

Bill Brown Xiamen University

Talmage Tribute by Pastor Iap Han Chiong, 1st Pastor of Amoy's Bamboo Church

Ahoy from Amoy! (modern Xiamen, China)
葉漢章牧師 Pastor Iap Han Chiong first Chinese pastor church amoy china

I received an email today from Emily Cheng, 5th generation descendant of Xiamen Bamboo Church's first pastor, Iap Han Chiong (葉漢章牧師). Click Here to read her letter; if you have more information about Pastor Iap, please share it. Many of my old books have photos or text about pastor Iap, the first Chinese pastor to the Chinese church in Amoy (which was China's first Protestant church, so we can pretty much say Pastor Iap was the first Chinese pastor!).

I will post more about Pastor Iap, but for now, but this Tribute by Iap to  John Van Next Talmage (Amoy's pioneering preacher, teacher and educator) tells you much about the qualities that Iap saw as important in life. Click Here for a short biography of Talmage on the Amoy Mission section of our Amoy Magic website.


[Pastor Iap was the first pastor of the Chinese Church]Teacher Talmage was very gentle. He wished ever to be at peace with men. If he saw a man in error he used words of meekness in convincing and converting the man from his error. Whether he exhorted, encouraged or instructed, his words were words of prudence, seasoned with salt, so that men were glad to receive and obey.
John Van Next Talmage Talmadge Amoy Mission Pastor Iap Han Chiong Tribute

Teacher Talmage was a lover of men. When he saw a man in distress and it was right for him to help, he helped. In peril, he exerted himself to deliver the man; in weakness, in danger of falling, he tried to uphold; suffering oppression, he arose to the defense, fearing no power, but contending earnestly
for the right.

Teacher Talmage was very gracious in receiving men, whether men of position or the common people. He treated all alike. If they wished to discuss any matter with him and get his advice, he would patiently listen to their tale. If he had any counsel to give, he gave it. If he felt he could not conscicntiously have anything to do with the affair, he told the men forthwith.

He could pierce through words, and see through men's countenances and judge what the man was, who was addressing him.

Teacher Talmage had great eloquence and possessed great intelligence. His utterance was clear, his voice powerful, his exposition of doctrine very thorough. Men listened and the truth entered their ears and their hearts understood.

Teacher Talmage was grave in manner. He commanded the respect and praise of men. His was a truly ministerial bearing. Men within and without the Church venerated him.

Sometimes differences between brethren arose. Teacher Talmage earnestly exhorted to harmony. Even serious differences, which looked beyond healing, were removed, because men felt constrained to listen to his counsel.

Teacher Talmage was exceedingly diligent. When not otherwise engaged, morning and afternoon found him in his study reading, writing, preparing sermons, translating books.

He preached every Sabbath. He conducted classes of catechumens. He founded the Girls' School at the Church "Under the Bamboos." He founded the Theological Seminary. Others taught with him, but he was the master spirit. He was ten points careful that everything relating to the organization and administration of the Church should be in accordance with the Holy Book.

Only at the urgent request of two physicians did he finally leave China. He was prepared to die and to be buried at Amoy. And this was not because he was not honored in his ancestral country, or could find no home. No, he had sons, he had a brother, he had nephews and nieces, he had many relatives and friends who greatly reverenced and loved him.

But Teacher Talmage could not bear to be separated from the Church in China. Surely this was imitating the heart of Christ. Surely this was loving the people of China to the utmost.

Pastor Iap Han Chiong, Bamboo Church, Amoy (Xiamen

Enjoy Amoy!

Dr. Bill
School of Management, Xiamen University
Amazon eBook
"Discover Xiamen"

Bill Brown Xiamen University

Tuesday, October 11, 2016

Edna Beekman, Amoy Missionary, Pioneer Chinese Women's Education

Edna Beekman Amoy Mission China Reformed Church Kulongsoo Kulongsu Women Education PioneerAhoy from Amoy (historic Xiamen, China).

It looks like Gulangyu Islet will finally receive UNESCO World Heritage Site status in 2017, barring further complications (Typhoon Meranti recently made a mess of our beautiful little islet, as it did Xiamen Island). And a bit part of Gulangyu's heritage was the work done by the Amoy Mission--especially the pioneering medical work (first mission medical work in China) and educational work  carried on by Talmage (Talmadge) and others. The tiny islet of Gulangyu not only had 20 colleges and schools but was also deemed the "richest square mile on earth" from 1900 to 1920, largely because in Amoy, like nowhere else, Chinese and foreigners worked together.

Xiamen pioneered education for children, for women, vocational and technical education, education for the blind--and also had a program to help rescue women and girls from slavery (human trafficking).

Below is a small pamphlet, "Living Stones," by Edna Beekman. a missionary in Amoy from 1914-1951).
Edna Beekman women girl students pioneering girls education human trafficking slavery Talmage Talmadge
 Living Stones, by Edna Beekman
THE Spring of 1930 has marked two Anniversaries in the educational work in Amoy, China the sixtieth year of the founding of the Amoy Girls' Primary School (the Developing Character school for Girls), and the tenth year of the establishment of the Amoy Girls' High School. A one reviews the history of those sixty years, and contrasts the present schools with those beginning of education for girls sixty years ago, one cannot but be impressed with the accomplishment of the year.

Sixty years is not long, as time is reckoned in China and so it is not so far from the day" when it seemed, in Chinese eyes, a foolish to educate a girl as to attempt to educate a cow! Those, too, were the days of foot,binding, symbolic of the fettering of women, physically, mentally and spiritually. To see our girls today, with these fetters shattered, having their chance to develop in all three directions, one rejoices with them that the clear vision and high hope of those early missionaries as into the needs of the future and the possibilities of the womenhood of China, and so, in the face of almost unsurmountable obstacles, gave to the girls their chance.
Edna Beekman Amoy Mission pioneering girls womens education human trafficking white jade butterfly
And have they proved themselves worthy? Have they fittingly used these new opportunities that are theirs? Have they passed on to others the torch of service that they themselves received? Let us look at some of the "living stones" of these schools of ours.

Education for girls has become such a popular thing these days that we reach in our schools not only the children from Christian homes, but many, many from homes that do not know the light and peace of the Gospel. Two little sisters entered the first year of our Primary School. They were bright, lovable children, but not very strong. Misfortune seemed to follow them, for first one, then the other, met with accidents in school. After the fourth mishap, both children were absent from school for several days, and on going to their home to find out the reason, the neighbors told us that the grandmother had concluded that some evil spirit of misfortune was following the family, because the children had been allowed to go to a Christian school, and so she had moved away during the dark hours of the night leaving no address, so that the evil spirit might not be able to trace them!

Edna Beekman Amoy Missions wedding Embroidered Scroll White Jade Jade Butterfly human trafficking slavery pioneering Chinese women's educationWe feared we should not see them again, but a week later, to our joy, they reappeared at school, having given their grandmother no peace until she had permitted them to come. Their grandmother tries to prevent them from attending church and Sunday School, but they love to come, and are willing to risk a possible whipping in order to do so. The Bible stories they learn in school, and the hymns they love to sing, cannot help but have an influence on them in later years. And they give very generously of their spending money for the work of the Chinese Home Missionary Society.

"Gold Piece" came to our school from a non-Christian home on Amoy Island. She was older and more mature then some of the other girls, and quickly assumed a position of leadership, becoming president of her class in the graduating year. When a small group of disgruntled girls, urged on by enemies of the school among the anti-Christian forces outside, went on strike and tried to involve the classes of the Higher Primary and bring about the closing of the school, "Gold Piece" and her friends threw the weight of their influence on the side of order and obedience, and most loyally helped to save the day. "Gold Piece" is determined that she will marry no one but a Christian.

The year before she graduated, "Gold Piece" brought her little sister, "Glorious Learning," to school one of our smallest boarding pupils. Everything was so new and strange to "Glorious Learning" that she went around with her eyes wide open and a thousand questions on her tongue. Sunday School was her chief joy, with the attendance charts, and gold stars and colored Bible picture cards which she treasured and looked over many times, repeating to herself the story illustrated by the picture. When she went home each month she showed the pictures and told the stories to her little brothers and cousins. The little metal pig that the children "fed" at Sunday School for the work among the lepers was her great delight, and when at the end of the term we "killed the pig" to see how much money we had, her excitement knew no bounds.

A slave girl managed to escape from a house of ill fame and was taken into the Slave Refuge at Amoy. She attended our Women's School and became an earnest Christian. The pastor's wife became interested in her and recommended her to a widower who was looking for a second wife. Her influence immediately became felt in that home and she won the love of her step children. The oldest girl, "Pure" Flower" was sent to our school. We were warned that she was deceptive and untruthful and loved to gamble, but with Christian surroundings and training she developed into one of the most studious, polite and lovable girls of her class. At the time of the strike she stood by the school most loyally.

When "Embroidered Scroll" first came to our school, she was a little bare-foot girl from the mountains. She did well in her studies and so was helped all the way through High School. Then she came back to the Primary School as a teacher, doing faithful work there for five years. The summer of 1928 she was married to a graduate of the Theological Seminary, and the young couple went back into the mountain districts to work. With their capabilities and training they could have had better opportunities, from a worldly standpoint of view, in churches nearer Amoy, but as they themselves said, "The need up"country is great, and we are accustomed to walk the mountain roads, so we feel our place of service is there." And how much it has meant to that isolated district in the mountains, to have these consecrated young people working there.

His sister, Jade Butterfly, was our first Scholarship Girl with the Talmage Jubilee Fund, and all through High School she stood out as a leader. As president of the Y. W. C. A., she presided over the Armistice Day meeting of International Fellowship and Goodwill, when girls dressed to represent the different nations of the world led in a candle-light service of consecration a service that will live long in the memories of those who shared in it. She also served as superintendent of the Sunday School and conducted weekly children's meetings in Amoy. Her great desire is to train for church leadership, so after she has had some experience as a teacher she will probably be sent to the Nanking Bible Training School, to fit herself for that work.

"Upper Springs" and "Loving Grace" were sent to the Amoy High School from our Leng-na [Longyan] Station so that they might be trained to carry on the work later in their own school. They both showed great initiative and executive ability, and interested themselves in many phases of the school life. Just before graduation the communists galned control of their district. The teacher to whom "Upper Springs" was engaged had to flee, so the two were married in Amoy after school closed, and went to Java, to carry the light of a Christian home and Christian education there. "Loving Grace" had been taken as a child into a family as a "little daughter-in -law," destined to marry the son in later years. He proved to be her inferior in every way, but because of the kindness of these foster parents through all the years, she felt it her duty to follow out their wishes. So upon graduation she returned to Leng'na [Longyan] and was married to this man, whom through all the years she had called "Brother." But when all the educated girls in that region were being forced by the Reds to do propaganda work, with the consent of the family she escaped to Amoy, where she is now teaching.

Time would fail to tell of all who have gone through our schools and then gone out again to serve the church and the community as teachers, doctors, nurses, Bible women, elders and deacons, or as mothers in Christian homes. We are seeing the third generation in our chools now. Those girls of sixty years ago are now grandmothers and their grand,daughters are the scholars of today. Who can measure the influence that has gone out from our schools through these "living stones," or what our schools, with their emphasis not only on proficiency in the secular studies, but even more on the developing of character and training in Christian service, will mean to the China of the future?

* * * * *
"Open the Abbey doors and bring him in,
To sleep with king and statesman, chief and sage;
The missionary come of weaver kin,
But great by work that brooks no lower wage.
He needs no epitaph to guard a name
Which men will prize while worthy work is known.
He lived and died for good; be that his fame.
Let marble crumble; this is Living stone."
* * * * *

Reformed Church in America
25 22nd Street
New York, N.Y.

Enjoy Amoy!

Dr. Bill
School of Management, Xiamen University
Amazon eBook
"Discover Xiamen"

Bill Brown Xiamen University

Thursday, September 22, 2016

Doctor Andrew Bonthius in Amoy, China

Ahoy from Amoy (historic Xiamen, China)!
Andrew Bonthius Bontius Benthius Amoy Mission Photos Photograph album Fujian China Xiamen Fukien

Great news! It looks pretty certain that Gulangyu (Kolongsoo) Islet will in 2017 be designated a UNESCO World Heritage site! And, happily, more and more people are contacting me to ask for (or sometimes share) materials about their Chinese or foreign ancestors in Amoy and Kolongsoo.

The grandson of missionary doctor Andrew Bonthius contacted me in 2011, and even six years later, I've found almost nothing about him, except for a few brief notes about his work in Dr. John Otte's letters.  If you have any information (written, photos, etc.), please share them with us! We need as much material as possible (if possible, originals) to bolster our final claim for UNESCO World Heritage status, at which point we hope to be able to do even more to protect our very unique history.

Update! I've just learned part of the reason I can find nothing about Bonthius is that the Reformed Church of America's records misspell his name! De Jong's "The Reformed Church in China 1842-1951," the definitive book on the Amoy Mission, spells it Andrew Bontius and Andrew Benthius, but  not the correct Andrew Bonthius!

Page 236 of De Jong's book records,

"Legacies, too, were an important source of funds. Thus, a generous legacy provided by Elizabeth Cappon, who served in China from 1891 to 1909, was designated for the reconstruction of Neerbosch [first hospital built by John Otte]. Similarly, as a memorial to the mother of Dr. Andrew Bontius, who served the mission from 1909 to 1914, the family made provisions for a new chapel to serve the Kulangsu hospitals. Like the building it replaced, it served the three-fold purpose of chapel, reading room, and hall for lectures. The former chapel was then converted into a large hospital ward."

Below is the letter from Dr. Andrew Bonthius' grandson (though I delete, of course, his email; if you'd like to contact him, please send me your email address and I'll forward it to him).

Enjoy Amoy!

Dr. Bill

Andrew Bonthius II's 2011 Email about his Grandfather
Hello Mr. Brown.
My name is Andrew Bonthius II.  I am the grandson and namesake of Dr. Andrew Bonthius who was a missionary doctor of the Dutch Reformed Church in Xiamen (Amoy), China from 1909 to 1913.  Mr. John de Velder suggested I contact you in my search for the chapel my grandfather sponsored while he was there.
missionary doctor Andrew Bonthius Amoy Mission Gulanghu Dr. John Otte
Photo by Amdrew Bonthius II
Dr. Bonthius II was a surgical doctor  who performed many hundreds, if not thousands, of operations for indigent Chinese and taught medicine while there as well as his main task of missionary work. He was an assistant to Dr. Otte who fell ill and died of the pneumonic plague while in Xiamen.  After tending to Dr. Otte during his illness, my grandfather was forced to return home in 1913 due to his own ill health, ending his missionary career.  He did bring with him, however,a wonderful photo album of those years which I have in my possession--handed down to me by my father Reverend Robert Harold Bonthius, Ph D.
My understanding is that my grandfather made provisions for a Christian chapel to serve the Kulangsu hospitals for the three-fold purpose of worship, reading room, and lecture hall.  I wonder if you know either of my grandfather's missionary work there or whether or not the chapel is still standing.  He was accompanied by his wife Nellie de Young Bonthius and they had two daughters born during their time in Amoy.
  I hope to hear from you soon.  Thank you very much.


Andrew Bonthius
My June 20, 2011 Reply

My sincere apologies for the delayed reply.  I was in Geneva when you sent your email, and my hard drive crashed completely, irrecoverably, and I also lost the emails from that period.  After returning to Xiamen, I put in a new hard drive—and just now saw your email on my other computer. 

I attach a couple of documents that have very brief references to Dr. Bonthius, and also part of a page in “In and About Amoy,” by Rev. Pitcher, which shows him in his three positions.

Regarding the chapel—it still stands.  In fact, the two hospitals, as well as the chapel between them, were recently beautifully renovated by the Gulangyu and Xiamen governments.  It was in terrible condition, and they considered razing the place, but fortunately, they’ve become more and more interested in their heritage.   I attach a photo of the newly renovated hospital complex (which will be a museum), and the chapel is the small white building between Hope Hospital (on the left) and Wilhelmina Hospital (on the right).

I regret that I have no other information about your grandfather (I did not even know he sponsored the chapel!).  If you have information I could upload on the site about Dr. Bonthius (and especially old photos), I would appreciate your sharing them.  The government has much interest in this heritage now—though when I first started writing about it ten years ago, there was almost no interest).  In fact, only last Saturday I gave a lecture from the pulpit of the Union Church (built in the 1860s), which the government spent over 4 million yuan helping to renovate, and will now be used for various Christian and social functions.

Warm regards, Bill

My June 24, 2011 reply to Andrew Bonthius' 2nd letter:

Dear Andrew,

Again, my apologies for the delayed reply.  I’ve been swamped wrapping up this semester’s classes, grades, and preparing to return to the U.S. for the summer next Tuesday (Fresno area).  

I don’t have photos of the inside [of Hope Hospital and Hope Chapel] because the facilities are closed until the work out the details of making it a museum.  I did take some photos of the interior before they worked on it.  It was a disaster, both inside and out.  The Japanese pretty much destroyed the buildings during their occupation, so to see it in its present condition is a great encouragement.  The government spent a small fortune to restore the hospitals and chapel, as well as the grounds.  I do attach a picture of the Union Church’s interior before the government spent several million renovating it.  The hospital and chapel looked almost exactly like this inside (run down, used for storage).  Last Saturday, the Union Church (1860s) was officially reopened, with many leaders (vice mayor, etc.), TV and newspapers, etc. in attendance, and I was blessed to give the first talk from the pulpit (not a sermon, of course—though I did shock them by suggesting we bow our heads in prayer, since it was a church).

Your grandfather would have attended Union Church, as well as the chapel, so I attach photos of the original building, as it was before restoration, and how it looks now.  

Your grandfather would have known Colin Campbell Brown, who studied Chinese on Gulangyu from about 1893-1895, then served 70 km. north in Quanzhou, starting a hospital, pasturing a church, and starting a homeschool that expanded and is today their best school.   Two weeks ago, CC Brown’s two granddaughters visited and I spent 3 days showing them around Xiamen and Quanzhou.  The Quanzhou Evening News (one of S.E. China’s best papers) had an entire page about their visit.  CC Brown wrote 3 books, and I had two but not the third one, so I was happy they gave me the one I was missing.

Two years ago, a former RCA missionary loaned me 8 photo albums from people here during the 1920s to 1952. I scanned about 600+ photos at high resolution, put them on DVDs, and gave copies to the church leaders, the government, and the RCA archives at Holland, Michigan.  They also now have the photo albums in their archives.  Unfortunately, the time span does not cover your grandfather’s stay here, but I have many Hope Hospital photos if you’re interested.  I attach an excellent old photo of the chapel and hospitals, taken by head nurse Jean Nienhius in 1924.    I also attach a page from one album showing photos taken in Hope Chapel of Dr. Holleman’s farewell gathering, and a very nice 1927 photo of the chapel’s interior. When I return to Xiamen in mid September, I will ask the Gulangyu government to let me in the hospital and chapel for photos, though I doubt the interior has had anything done to it yet.

Regarding your grandfather’s photos, it would be great if you could share them with us, as almost all of my photos are from the 1920s to 1952, and the mid 1850s to 1870s.  I bought a high resolution scanner last year to scan the 8 albums of Jean Nienhuis, and I’d be happy to pay for registered air to Fresno and back to you if I could scan them, and provide you and the archives a DVD of the photos.

And if you’d agree, I could post some on the website, which might stimulate more interest about your grandfather.  Many people have made connections through this and exchanged materials and photos (I have all of Dr. Ottes’ writings, by the way, which might mention your grandfather; I could scan them as well).  I’ve been contacted by the descendants of most of the early missionaries here.

Xiamen is applying for UNESCO World Heritage Status for Gulangyu (will happen in 2017!],one of the reasons they restored Hope Chapel and Hospital), and we could really use the photos for that as well.  And finally, I’ve been helping the local churches compile a history of the Amoy Mission here, and the photos would add a lot.  Of course, all photo scans would be marked to show their source.

In closing (sorry this is so long), I put out a book last year, “Old Gulangyu in Foreigners’ Eyes,” with over 500 photos, paintings, drawings, etc., and excerpts from old books, diaries, journals, letters, etc., describing Gulangyu and Amoy from about the 1570s to 1952.  I’d be happy to send you a copy of that.

Thanks again for contacting me.  It is very encouraging.

Bill Brown
Xiamen University
Bill Brown Xiamen University

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

Old Amoy China Bibliography & Sources

Ahoy from Amoy (historic Xiamen)!

Classic China books MacGowan Amoy Xiamen Quanzhou Zayton Zheng He Zhengchenggong
A few of my classic China books

Many have asked where I obtained the old maps, photos, journals, books etc. for my last few books on Fujian and Xiamen history and culture. Sadly--virtually none came from China. Most historic Fujian material was destroyed by the invading Japanese in the 1930s and 1940s. And quite a bit was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution when, right here on Gulangyu Islet, they made bonfires of priceless old books and photos and mementos (and bulldozed the over 300-year-old foreigners' cemetery with its beautiful tombstones; they did the same thing with Chinese heritage as well, so it wasn't just directed at us foreign devils).

Happily, though, it's easy to find so much online now. By searching eBay and used bookstores, I've found hundreds of old books, maps, photos, etc. My favorite sites are and Advanced Book Exchange ( -- my favorite, because they twice went to bat for me against unscrupulous  book dealers). These two sites give you the results for thousands of sellers and allows you to compare prices. In comparing prices, be sure to factor in shipping costs. Some sites give very low prices but exorbitant shipping charges.

Nowadays, you can actually download most of these historic materials for free from the Project Gutenberg site (over 50,000 free eBooks) or the Internet Archives, which has millions of old books and documents, as well as classic radio and TV programs (and movies) and the amazing "Waybackmachine"-- 505 billion archived internet webpages--which just proves that nothing is ever truly deleted once it is on the web. A sobering thought.

The materials are scanned by armies of volunteers and quality varies, but the files are fine for text--though the resolution of the photos is too low to be useful. That is why I've bought so many original books--to use the photos. Click Here to see the Internet Archives' scan of John MacGowan's "Christ or Confucius Which? The Story of the Amoy Mission" (1885).

Once you've downloaded some of these millions of free online eBooks, you can send them to your Kindle by using the free Amazon application Send to Kindle. Click Here for an explanation of how to do that (and 7 reasons I now read eBooks on Kindle instead of a phone).

I started collecting books after I tried to get permission to use an old photo from a 100-year-old book at the New York City library. They wanted me to sign a contract promising to use the scan once, explaining what I was doing with the scan and why--and they demanded USD 175! Highway robbery. I politely declined (while, I regret thinking impolite thoughts), and not long afterwards I found the book for sale online for much less than NYC library was charging for one scan--and the book had over 40 photos!

To give you a head start, below are some of the most useful or interesting books that I've found for my research on old Xiamen (Amoy), Fujian (Fukien) and China.

Enjoy Amoy!

Dr. Bill 
Academic Director, XMU OneMBA
School of Management, Xiamen University
Amazon eBook
"Discover Xiamen"

Old Amoy Bibliography
(I've highlighted my favorites)

Abend, Hallett, “Treaty Ports,” Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc, New York, 1944

Allom, Thomas and Wright, the Reverend G.N., “China in a Series of Views, Displaying the Scenery, Architecture, and Social Habits of that Ancient Empire,” Fisher, London and Paris, 1843.

“The Amoy Gazette” (厦门钞报)

“Amoy General Geographical Description, &c.” China Review, Vol. 22, No.3, 1896

Anderson, John L., “Our Horse Races in China,” in Outing, Vol. XVI, Issue 5, 5 August, 1890

Anderson, John A., M.D., “The Opium Question: A New Opportunity,” in Chinese Recorder, Vol. 37,  August, 1906.

Anti-Cobweb Society, “Fukien Arts and Industries: Papers by Members of the Anti-Cobweb Society, Foochow, Fukien, China,” Christian Herald Industrial Press, Foochow 1933. Delightful book; explains why Fujian silk was as good or better than Hangzhou silk, and how our province earned more money from bamboo than from tea, for which we are globally famous.

“Greetings from Amoy; Amoy Mission, 1842-1907,” Pamphlet by Reformed Church of America.

“Asia Journal and Monthly Register for British India and its Dependencies,”; Supplementary Intelligence, Vol. XXVI, July to December 1828, London, 1828 

Baldwin, Rev. S.L.D.D., “Lieutenant Wood on Missionaries in China,” Chinese Recorder, Vol. 20, Nov. 1889.

Ball, Benjamin Lincoln, “Rambles in Eastern Asia: Including China and Manila, During Several Years Residence,” James French and Company, Boston, 1856

Ball, J. Dyer, “Things Chinese; or Notes Connected with China,” Kelly & Walsh, Hong Kong, 1903 

Ball, J. Dyer, “The Celestial and his Religions: or, the religious aspect in China.  Being a series of lectures on the religions of the Chinese,” Kelly and Walsh, Hong Kong, 1906

Band, Edward, “Working His Purpose Out: The History of the English Presbyterian Mission,” Presbyterian Church of England, London, 1948  Rare Amoy photographs.

Barbour, George F., “China and the Missions at Amoy, with Notice of the Opium Trade,” William P. Kennedy, Edinburgh, 1855.

Bax, Captain B.W., R.N, “The Eastern Seas; Being a Narrative of the ‘Dwarf’ in China, Japan, and Formosa,” John Murray, London, 1875

Beach, Harlan P., “Dawn on the Hills of T’ang, or, Missions in China,” Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions,” New York, 1905

Bedloe, Edward, M.D., U.S. Consul, reporting in “Weekly Abstract of Sanitary Reports,” Supervising Surgeon-General M.H,S., Government Printing Office, Washington, 1893

Bedloe, Edward, M.D., U.S. Consul in Amoy, :”Public Health Reports, Vol. 2, January 1, 1881

Beltman, Henry, “90 Years with Uncle Henry,” Robert Schuller Ministries, Garden Grove, California, 1984  Henry Beltman was the indefatigable uncle of Crystal Cathedral's Robert Schuller.

Bishop, Mrs. J.F., “Chinese Pictures; Notes on Photographs Made in China,” Cassell and Company Limited, London, 1900
Panoramic view Amoy Xiamen photo photogaph China early photography

Blakeslee, George H., Editor, “China and the Far East: Clark University Lectures,” Thomay Y. Crowell and Co., New York, 1910

B.N., “The Drum Wave Island and other Verses of the China Coast,” Kelly & Walsh, Ltd., 1904 Delightful poems, though I can find nothing about the author himself. Download it from my website at

Boehm, Lise, “China Coast Tales,” Kelly and Walsh Limited, Shanghai, 1897.  “In the Sixties.”

Bonar, Rev. Andrew A., “Memoir of the Life and Brief Ministry of Rev. David Sandeman,”
James Nisbet & Co., London, 1861.

Boulger, Demetrius Charles, “China—Nations of the World Series,” Peter Fenelon Collier, New York, 1902

Bowra, Cecil A.V., Commissioner of Customs, “Amoy,” in Wright, 1908

Bradford, Ruth P., “The Journal and Letters of Ruth Bradford, 1861-1872, Prospect Press, Hartford, Connecticut, 1938. Absolutely hilarious account of life in Amoy by the high-spirited and spoiled daughter of the U.S. consulate. I love the line drawings.

Breck, Samuel, “Descendants of Aaron and Mary (Church) Magoun, of Pembroke, Massachusetts, Third Edition,” Washington, D.C., 1891.

Breuer, Hans, “Columbus was Chinese, Discoveries and Inventions of the Far East,” Herder and Herder, New York, 1972

Brown, C. Campbell, “China in Legend and Story,” Fleming H. Revell Company, NY, 1907
Brown's two daughters visited me in Xiamen a few years ago and I showed them around their parents old haunts in Quanzhou. Amazing stories; Quanzhou Evening News published a great article on this after I donated Quanzhou several old books.

Bruce, C.D., Colonel, “The Provinces of China”; Reprinted from the National Review (China) as the “The National Review Annual,” The National Review Office, Shanghai, 1910

Caldwell, George W., M.D., “Oriental Rambles,” G.W. Caldwell, Poughkeepsie, N.Y., 1906.

Caldwell, “China Coast Family,” Henry Regnery Company, Chicago, 1953 Amazing story of a Tennessee family of missionaries, naturalists and Amoy tiger hunters in Fujian from 1899 to the 1950s. Download my PDF scan from this page:

Campbell, Rev.W., F.R.G.S., “Education and Work for the Chinese Blind,” Chinese Recorder, Vol. 21, p. 450, October, 1889

Carles, William Le Gendre, U.S. Consul in Amoy, “How to Deal with China. A Letter to de B. Rand. Kiem, Esquire, Agent of the United States, Amoy, 1871.

Chater, Paul Cachik; Orange, James, “The Chater Collection: Pictures Relating to China, Hongkong, Macao, 1655-1860; with Historical and Descriptive Letterpress by James Orange,” London, Thornton Butterworth Limited, 1924

Amoy Fukien China map Emowi Atlas de "I'Histoire General des Voyages", Antoine Francois Prevost
1755 French Map of Amoy (Emowi, Xiamen) Gulangyu (Kolongsoo) and Jinmen (Quemoy) from Atlas de "I'Histoire General des Voyages", Antoine Francois Prevost

"Chinese Recorder", Volume 5, American Presbyterian Mission Press, Shanghai, Volume 5, May

Clarke, Basil, “Chinese Science and the West,” Nile & MacKenzie, Ltd. London, 1980.

Close, Upton, “In the Land of the Laughing Buddha; the Adventures of an American Barbarian in China,” G.P. Putnam and Sons, New York & London, 1924. 

Coffin, George, A Pioneer Voyage to California and Round the World, 1849 to 1852”  Gorham B. Coffin, Illinois, June, 1908.

Cope, Captain, "A New History of the East-Indies: With Brief Observations on the Religion, Customs, Manners and Trade of the Inhabitants...", M. Cooper, London, 1754.

Corwin, Edward Tanjore, D.D. “A Manual of the Reformed Church in America (Formerly Reformed Dutch Church), 1628-1902, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1902.

Cressy-Marcks, Violet, “Journey into China,” E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc., New York, 1942

Gordon-Cumming, Miss, “The Explosion at Amoy,” St. James’ Gazette, in Littell’s Living Age, Feb. 4, 1888.

Cunynghame, Colonel Arthur Augustus Thurlow, "An Aide-De-Camp's Recollections of Service in China, A Residence in Hong-Kong, and Visits to Other Islands in the Chinese Seas," London, 1853

Curtis, Benjamin Robbins, “Dottings Round the Circle,” James R. Osgood & Company, Boston, 1876

D’Almeida, Anna, “A Lady’s Visit to Manilla and Japan,” Hurst and Blackett, London, 1863.

Darley, Mary, “Cameos of a Chinese City,” [Jian ‘Ou] Church of England Zenana Missionary Society, Missionary Society, 27 Chancery Lane, London, 1917

Darley, Mary, “The Light of the Morning,” Church of England Zenana Missionary Society, Missionary Society, 27 Chancery Lane, London, 1903

Davis, John Francis, “The Chinese: General Description of the Empire of China and its Inhabitants,” Vol. 2, Charles Knight & Company, London, 1836

Davis, Rev. J.A., “The Young Mandarin; a Story of Chinese Life” Congregational Sunday-School and Publishing Society, Boston and Chicago, 1896

Dean, William, “The China Mission: Embracing a History of the Various Missions of All   Denominations Among the Chinese, with Biographical Sketches of Deceased Missionaries,” Sheldon & Co., New York, 1859

De Jong, Gerald F., “The Reformed Church in China 1842-1951,” Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Michigan, 1992 This is THE definitive modern work on the Amoy Mission.

Denby, Hon. Charles, LL.D., [Thirteen Years United States Minister to China], “China and Her People: Being the Observations, Reminiscences, and Conclusions of an American Diplomat, Vol. II, L.C. Page and Company, Boston, 1906

Denby, Hon. Charles, LL.D., “China’s Open Door,” Lothrop Publishing, Boston, 1900

Dennis, Rev. James S., “Christian Missions and Social Progress: A Sociological Study of Foreign Missions,” Vol. III, Fleming H. Revell Company, NY, 1906

DeVelder, Walter, “A Missionary Journey Over Nine Decades” (unpublished).

Dobell, Peter, “Travels in Kamtchatka and Siberia, with a Narrative of a Residence in China, Vol. II, London, 1830.  Dobell: Counselor of the Court of His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Russia”.

du Halde, P., “ The General History of China,” (4 vols: London, 1741), vol.1 p.169. 

Dukes, Edwin Joshua, “Everyday Life in China; or, Scenes Along River and Road in Fuh-Kien,” London Missionary Society’s Edition, The Religious Tract Society, 56, Paternoster Row; 65, St. Paul’s Churchyard; and 164, Piccadilly, 1885 This delightful book has dozens of engraved illustrations of Chinese life in Fujian, including Amoy and Kulongsoo (Gulangyu).

Duryea, Rev. William Rankin D.D., “The Amoy Mission,” Excerpted from “A Manual of the Missions of the Reformed (Dutch) Church in America,” by Sangster, Mrs. Margaret E., Ed.; Board of Publication of the Reformed Church in America, New York, 1877, pp.170-209

Ecke, Gustav, and Demieville, P., “The Twin Pagodas of Zayton,” Harvard University Press, Massachusetts, 1935. Ecke, a German scholar, erected two full-sized wooden scaffolds around these two 1000-year-old pagodas and photographed every stone engraving! Amazing book; very rare. Quanzhou government copied the volume in Beijing but I managed to buy a copy myself. This project was written about in "A Race of Green Ginger" (another of my favorites on this list).

Edkins, Jane Rowbotham Stobbs,  “Chinese Scenes and People: With Notices of Christian Missions and Missionary Life in a Series of Letters from Various Parts of China,” James Nisbit and Company, London, 1863  Beautiful descriptions of early Amoy, making comparisons to Scotland.

Edkins, Joseph, D.D., “Introduction to the Study of the Chinese Characters,” Trubner and Company, London, 1875

Edkins, Rev. J., D.D., “Early Forms of Chinese,” Chinese Recorder and Missionary Journal,  Vol. 16, No. 2, March-April, 1885.

English Presbyterian Messenger, Vol 1. 1st May 1845 to 31st December 1847, Hamilton, Adams, and Co., Paternoster-Row, London, 1847

Esther. Joe, “This Is The Way, Walk Ye In It,” Privately printed, Redlands, Ca. 1977

Eve, Paul F. M.D. and  Garvin, I.P. M.D. “The Southern Medical and Surgical Journal Vol. 1, 1845 New Series,” P.C. Guieu Publisher, Augusta, Jan. 1845

Fagg, John Gerardus, Chinese Recorder,Vol. 23,Nov.1892.

Fagg,  John Gerardus, “Forty Years in China, the Life of Rev.John van Nest Talmage,”  Brooklyn, 1894

Fenn, C.H. Rev., "Methods of Self Support,"  Chinese Recorder, Vol. 29, No. 2, Feb. 1898

Fergusson, James, “The Illustrated Handbook of Architecture,” John Murray, London, 1855

Fisher, Lena Leonard, “The River Dragon’s Bride,” Abingdon Press, New York, 1922

Ford, John D., “An American Cruiser in the East, Travels and Studies in the Far East,” 2nd Edition, With an Account of the Battle of Manila, April 30, 1898, A.S. Barnes and Company, New York, 1898    Ford was First Engineer of the Pacific Station, United States Navy.

Forgues-Daurand, Paul-Emile, “La Chinese Ouverte, Adventures d’un Fan-Kouei dans le pays de Tsin,” H. Fournier, Paris, 1845

Foster, John W., “American Diplomacy in the Orient,” 1903.

Foster, Ellsworth, D. Ed., “The World Book,”  Vol. 1,  The World Book Inc., Chicago, 1918.

Franck, Harry A., “Wandering in Northern China,” The Century Co., New York, 1923 Franck wrote large, fascinating volumes filled with priceless photographs.

Franck, Harry A., “Roving Through Southern China,” The Century Co., New York, 1925.

Fullerton, W.Y., andWilson, C.E., “New China—A Story of Modern Travel,” Morgan and Scott, Ltd., (Office of the Christian), 12 Paternoster Buildings, London, 1910.

Gamewell, Mary Ninde, “New Life Currents in China,” Interchurch Press, New York, 1919

Gaunt, Rev. L.H., Ed., “The Chronicle of the London Missionary Society, Vol. VIII, No. 85 New Series,” London, 1899

Giles, Herbert Allan, L.L.D., “A Short History of Koolangsu,” Amoy, 1878.

Giles, Herbert Allen, L.L.D., “China and the Chinese,” Columbia University Press, N.Y., 1902.

Gillespie, Rev. William, “The Land of Sinim, or, China and Chinese Missions,” Myles Macphail, London, 1854  [Gillespie was “For seven years agent of the London Missionary Society at Hong-Kong and Canton, and now minister of the United Presbyterian Church, Shiels, Aberdeen.”]

Goodrich, Joseph King, “The Coming China,” A.C. McClure Co., Chicago, 1911

Gordon-Cumming, Miss, in “Littell’s Living Age,” Fifth Series, Volume LXL, No Feb. 4, 1888.

Gottschall, Terrell D., “By order of the Kaiser,” Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland, 2003

Graves, Rev. Rosewell Hobart, “Forty Years in China,” R.H. Woodward Company, Baltimore, 1895. 

Griffis, William Elliot Griffis, D.D., L.H.D., “Hepburn of Japan, and His Wife and Helpmates; a Life Story of Toil for Christ,” Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1913

Groot, J.J.M., "The Religious System of China, its ancient forms, evolution, history and present aspect.  Manners, customs and social institutions connected therewith," Vol. 1, 1892.   Book 1. Disposal of the Dead. Vol. 1,  Part. 1 Funeral Rites, Chapter 1, The Decease.

Gutzlaff, Karl F. A., “Journal of Three Voyages Along the Coast of China in 1831, 1832, and 1833,” Frederick Westley and A.H. Davis, London, 1834. Wonderful, insightful descriptions of Amoy and its people.

Gutzlaff, Charles, Rev. by Rev. Andrew Reed, D.D., “China Opened; or, A Display of the Topography, History, Customs, Manners, Arts, Manufactures, Commerce, Literature, Religion, Jurisprudence, etc. of the Chinese Empire,” Vol. II  Smith, Elder & Co., London, 1838. 

Haffner, Christopher, “Amoy—The Port and the Lodge,” The Corinthian Lodge of Amoy, No. 1806 EC, Hong Kong, 1997

Hamilton, Alexander, “New Account of the East Indies, Being the Observations and Remarks of Captain Alexander Hamilton, 1688-1723,” King’s Printing House, printed by John Mosman, Edinburgh, 1727

Hart, Robert, “These from the Land of Sinim: Essays on the Chinese Questions,” Chapman and Hall, London, 1901.

Headland, Isaac Taylor, “China’s New Day,” Frank Wood Printer, Boston, Massachusetts, 1912.

Hewlett, Sir Meyrick, “Forty Years in China,” Macmillan & Co., Ltd., 1943. 

Hobson, John M.,”The Eastern Origins of Western Civilization,” Cambridge Univ. Press, U.K. 2004.

Holkeboer, Tena, “God’s Bridge, or the Story of Jin-Gi,” Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, MI, 1944

Hollister, Mary Brewster, “Lady Fourth Daughter of China,” The Central Committee on the United Study of Foreign Missions, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1932

Hughes, George, [Commissioner of Imperial Maritime Customs at Amoy] “Amoy and Surrounding Districts,” De Souza and Company, Hong Kong, 1872

Hurlbut, Floy, “The Fukienese: a Study in Human Geography,” Doctoral dissertation for University of Nebraska, 1939

Johnston, Rev. James., “China and Formosa; The Story of a Successful Mission,” Hazell, Watson, & Viney, Ld. London, 1898

Johnston, Meta and Lena, Jin Ko-Niu—A Brief Sketch of the Life of Jessie M. Johnston For Eighteen Years W.M.A. Missionary in Amoy, China, T. French Downie 21 Warwick Lane, London, E.C. 1907 Heartwarming story of this young female missionary who spent her life on Amoy women's education. Read it at:

Joseland, Rev. Frank P. “Our Missionary Districts, Amoy and Chiang-Chiu”, in Gaunt, 1899.

Keith, Marian, “The Black Bearded Barbarian: The Life of George Leslie Mackay of Formosa,” The Missionary Society of the Methodist Church, The Young People’s Forward Movement Department, Toronto, 1912.

Kesson, John (of the British Museum),“The Cross and the Dragon, or, The Fortunes of Christianity in China, with Notices of the Christian Missions and Missionaries, and some Accounts of the Chinese Secret Societies,”Smith, Elder & Co., London, 1854.

King, F. H. ,  D. Sc., “Farmers of Forty Centuries, or, Permanent Agriculture in China, Korea and Japan,”  University of Wisconsin, 1911

King, John W., Master, R.N.,The China Pilot, Comprising the Coasts of China, Korea, and Tartary; The Sea of Japan, Gulfs of Tartary and Amur, and Sea of Okhotsk; and the …”   3rd Edition, Hydrographic Office, Admiralty, London, 1861.

Knollys, Major Henry, “English Life in China,” Smith, Elder & Company, London, 1885

Kwantes, Helen, “She has done a Beautiful Thing for me; Portraits of Christian Women in Asia.”  OMF  Books. 

LaMotte, Ellen N., “Peking Dust,” The Century Company, New York, 1919. Very insightful!

Lawrence, James B., U.S.M.C. “China and Japan, and a Voyage Thither: An Account of a Cruise in the Waters of the East Indies, China and Japan,” Press of Case, Lockwood & Brainard, Hartford, Connecticut, 1870.

Lawrence, Una Roberts, “Lottie Moon,” Sunday School Board of the Southern Baptist Convention, Nashville, 1927

Lewis, Elizabeth Foreman, “Portraits from a Chinese Scroll,” the John C. Winston Company, Chicago, 1938

Liddell, T. Hodgson, “China, it’s Marvel and Mystery,” John Lane, New York, 1909

Lin, Yutang, “My Country and My People,” Foreign Language and Teaching Press, Beijing, 1998. Lin Yutang, from nearby Zhangzhou (two hours from Xiamen) wrote amazing books in English. The greatest 20th century Chinese writer!

Little, Archibald, Mrs. “Intimate China: The Chinese as I Have Seen Them,” Hutchinson & Co., London, 1899 Large, heavy volume chock full of great photographs.

Lockhart, William, The Medical Missionary in China: A Narrative of Twenty Years' Experience, Hurst and Blackett, Publishers, Spottiswoode and Company, London, 1861

Low, Captain Charles Porter, “Some Recollections by Captain Charles P. Low: Commanding the Clipper Ships “Houqua,” “Jacob Bell,” “Samuel Russell,” “and “N. B. Palmer,” in the China Trade 1847-1873,” George H. Ellis Company, Boston, 1906

Lowrie, Rev. Walter M., “Memoirs,” Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church, New York, 1850.

Lu, C.C., of Ningpo, China “China and England: a Lecture Delivered at Sheffield University,” Sheffield Independent Press, Sheffield, U.K., 1904

Macaulay, Hastings, “A Cruise in the China Seas,” G.P. Putnam & Company, New York, 1852.

MacCauley, Hastings, Life Among the Chinese, Carlton and Porter, New York, 1861.

MacGowan, John, “The History of Self-Support in the London Mission,” Chinese Recorder, Vol. 18, December, 1887. I have all of MacGowan's books. Very insightful writing and priceless photographs.

Macgowan, Rev. John, “Christ or Confucius, Which?, or, The Story of the Amoy Mission,” London Missionary Society, 14 Blomfield Street, E.C.; John Snow & Co., 2 Ivy Lane, Paternoster Row, E.C. 1895

Macgowan, Rev. John, “Pictures of Southern China,” The Religious Tract Society, London, 1897

Macgowan, Rev. John, “Sidelights on Chinese Life,” Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Limited, London, 1907

Macgowan, Rev. John, “Lights and Shadows of Chinese Life,” North China Daily News & Herald Ltd., Shanghai, 1909

Macgowan, Rev. John, “Men and Manners of Modern China,” T. Fisher Unwin, London, 1912.

Macgowan, John, “How England Saved China,”  T. Fisher Unwin, London, 1913.

Macgowan, John, “Beside the Bamboo,” London Missionary Society, 16 New Bridge Street, London, 1914.

Macgregor, Rev. W. Letter dated January 14, 1875, in The Messenger and Missionary Record of the Presbyterian Church in England, London, April 1, 1875  

Macguire, Theophane, C.P., “Hunan Harvest, Bruce Publishing Company, Milwaukee, 1946.

Mackenzie-Grieve, Averil, “A Race of Green Ginger,” Putnam, London, 1959 My favorite account of foreign life on Gulangyu and in Amoy in the 1920s and 30s. She also wrote about Ecke, the German who photographed Quanzhou's (Zayton's) twin pagodas.

Maclay, Rev. R. S., “Life Among the Chinese: With Characteristic Sketches and incidents of Missionary Operations and Prospects in China,” Carlton & Porter, New York, 1861.

MacPherson, D., M.D., “Two Years in China: Narrative of the Chinese Expedition, from its formation in April, 1840, to the treaty of peace in August, 1842,” Saunders and Otley, London, 1843. 

Manson-Bahr, Sir Ph-ilip, “Patrick Manson, The Father of Tropical Medicine,” Thomas Nelson and Sons, Ltd., Edinburgh, 1962 Gulangyu was called the Cradle of Tropical Medicine because it was here that Manson discovered the link between mosquitoes and malaria. Read more here:

Martin, Robert Montgomery,   China; political, commercial, and social; in an official report to her Majesty’s Government, Vol. II, James Madden, London, 1847

Matheson, Donald, Esq., “Narrative of the Mission to China of the English Presbyterian Church, with Remarks on the Social Life and Religious Ideas of the Chinese, by the Rev. James MacGowan (London Missionary Society of Amoy), and Notes on Climate, Health and Outfit, By John Carnegie, Esq., M.D. of Amoy”, James Nisbet and Company, London, 1866.

Matheson, Mrs., Ed., Memorials of Hugh M. Matheson [1921-1898] Edited by his wife with a prefatory note by the Rev. J. Oswald Dykes, M.A., D.D. Principal of Westminster College, Cambridge.  London: Hodder and Stoughton. 1899

Mathews, Basil, and Southon, Arthur E., “Torchbearers in China, Missionary Education Movement of the United States and Canada,” New York, 1924

Mayers, Wm. Fred, and Dennys, N.B., “The Treaty Ports of China and Japan,” Trubner & Company, London, 1867

McCasland, David, “Eric Liddell-Pure Gold,” Discovery House Publishers, Michigan, 2001.

Menpes, Mortimer, and Blake, Sir Arthur Henry, “China,” Adam and Charles Black, London, 1909.

“Messenger and Missionary Record of the Presbyterian Church in England,” London, April 1, 1875

Metcalf, Franklin P., “Travellers and Explorers in Fukien before 1700,” The Hong Kong Naturalist, December, 1934

Methodist Episcopal Church Missionary Society, “The Gospel in All Lands Illustrated,” Eugene R. Smith, Publisher, New York,  Jan.-June, 1881

Michie, Alexander, “The Englishman in China During the Victorian Period, as Illustrated by the Career of Sir Rutherford Alcock, K.C.B., D.C.L., Many Years Consul and Minister in China and Japan, Vol. I”,  William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh and London, 1900

Millard, Thomas E., “Our Eastern Question: America’s Contact with the Orient and the Trend of Relations with China and Japan,” The Century Company, NY, 1916

Miller, Basil, “Twenty Four Missionary Stories from China,” Beacon Hill Press, Kansas City, Missouri, 1948

Miller, J.Martin, “China Ancient and Modern,” Sanderson-Whitten Publishing Co. Los Angeles, 1900

Morse, Hosea Ballou, “The Trade and Administration of China,” Green and Company, London, 1919.  Ballou was “Sometime Commissioner of Customs and Statistical Secretary, Inspectorate General of Customs.”

Murray, Lieutenant Alexander,[18th Royal Irish]  “Doings in China—Being the Personal Narrative of an Officer Engaged in the Late Chinese Expedition, From the Recapture of Chusan in 1841 to the Peace in Nankin in 1842.” Richard Bentley, London, 1843

Nautical Magazine and Naval Chronicle for 1852,  A Journal of Papers on Subjects Connected with Maritime Affairs, Notes on a Voyage to China in Her Majesty’s Late Screw Steamer Reynard.—P. Cracroft, Commander.   Simpkin, Marshall and Co., Ltd.

Needham, Joseph, “Science in Traditional China,” Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1981.

Neill, Desmond, “Elegant Flower—First Steps in China,” John Murray, Albemarle St., London, 1956
Second only to Race of Green Ginger in describing Amoy life for foreigners in the 1940s. Insightful, humorous.

Nevius, Helen S.C., “Our Life in China,” Robert Carter and Brothers, New York, 1869. Unique insight on how the "3 Self Principles" for Chinese churches (which arose in Amoy in the 1950s, not with Communist China after 1949--the Communists just adopted these wise principles) made the Amoy mission the strongest--and how they were taken to Korea!

Nevius, Dr. John L., Chinese Recorder, Vol. 23, Nov. 1892.

Ng, Chin-Keong, “Trade and Society—The Amoy Network on the China Coast 1683-1735,” Singapore University Press, Singapore, 1983

Oldham, Rev. H.W., “Educational Mission Work in and near Amoy,” Changpu, in Chinese Recorder, June 1908.

Orange, James, :The Chater Collection; Pictures Relating to China, Hongkong, Macao, 1865-1860, Thornton Butterworth, Limited, London, 1924

Otte, Frances Phelps, “The Christian Intelligencer,” Dec. 4, 1901 (from Taitan, Amoy, letter, August 1901).

Phillips, George, “Zaitun Researches” Chinese Recorder and Missionary Journal,  Vol. 8, No. 2, March-April, 1877.

Pinkerton, J., “A General Collection of Voyages and Travels, digested by J. Pinkerton,” 1811, Vol. 8. London, 1812

Pitcher, Philip Wilson, “Fifty Years in Amoy, a History of the Amoy Mission,” Reformed Church of America Board of Publication, NY, 1893

Pitcher, Rev. P.W., Letter from Amoy Boy’s Academy, Kolongsu, Dec. 22nd, 1894,  in Chinese Recorder, Vol.26, February.

Pitcher, Rev. P.W., "The Native Pastorate at Amoy; or Another Object-Lesson in Self-Support," Amoy, July 26th, 1900; in Chinese Recorder, Vol. 31, October, 1900  pp. 503-509, and Nov.,  pp. 550-  "The Amoy Plan."

Pitcher, Philip Wilson, “In and About Amoy,” Methodist Publishing House, Shanghai, 1912
This is THE book on early 20th century Amoy. Amazing book, great photos.

Regnault, Elias, and Doane, Augustus Sidney, "The Criminal History of the English Government: From the First Massacre of the Irish, to the Poisoning of the Chinese," translated from the French, J.S. Redfield, New York, 1843

Richard, Timothy, “Forty Five Years in China; Reminiscences,” Frederick A. Stokes Company, New York, 1916

Ross, Frank, Jr., “Oracle Bones, Stars, and Wheelbarrows, Ancient Chinese Science and Technology,” Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1982

Rudy, Stella M., “Children of China,” Rand McNally and Company, Chicago, 1937

Sadler, Rev. James F., “Chinese Customs and Superstitions, or, What They do at Amoy,” China Review, XXII, No. 6, 1897.

Sadler, Rev. James F., “The Anglo-Chinese College at Amoy,” in Gaunt, 1899.

Sale, George, and others, “The Modern Part of an Universal History: From the Earliest Account of Time,” VOL. VIII, Compiled from Original Writers, Printed for Richardson, S., et al., London, 1759. 

Sangster, Mrs. Margaret E., Ed.; “A Manual of the Missions of the Reformed (Dutch) Church in America,” Board of Publication of the Reformed Church in America, New York, 1877.

Scarth, John, “Twelve Years in China,” Thomas Constable and Company, Edinburgh, 1860

Scott, Roderick, “Fukien Christian University,” United Board for Christian Colleges in China, NY, 1954.

Selby, Thomas Gunn, “As the Chinese See Us,” Fisher Unwin, London, 1901 As useful an insight today as it was 115 years ago.

Shore, Hon. Henry Noel, R.N., “The Flight of the Lapwing, A Naval Officer’s Jottings in China, Formosa and J apan,”  Longmans, Green and Company, London, 1881

Singleton, Esther, “China: Described by Great Writers,” Dodd, Mead and Company, New York, 1912 Delightful insightful book.

Sirr, Henry Charles, “China and the Chinese: Their Religion, Character, Customs, and Manufacturers; the Evils Arising from the Opium Trade,” Vol. I, Wm. S. Orr and Company, London 1849

Smith, D. Warres, “European Settlements in the Far East,” Sampson, Low, Marston & Company, London, 1900

Smith, Mary Augusta Doty, “The China Story: Recollections of a Little Girl’s Life in Amoy, China,” unpublished memoir.  [Daughter of Elihu Doty, RCA Missionary to China, 1844-1864] Great read. Unpublished, but I've uploaded it here:

Smith, Rev. J.N.B., "Money and Missions, in Chinese Recorder, Vol. 29, No. 2, Feb. 1898

Smith, George, A Narrative of an Exploratory Visit to Each of the Consular Cities of China, on behalf of the Church Missionary Society, in the Years 1844, 1845, 1846,”  Harper and Brothers Publishers, New York, 1857.

Soothill, William E., “A Mission in China,” Young People’s Missionary Movement, New York, 1907

Spencer, Cornelia “Made in China,” Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1952. One of my favorite books on Chinese inventions, even to this day--with a forward by Lin Yutang.

Stevens, John Austin, “The Magazine of American History with Notes and Queries, vol. IV”, A.S. Barnes and Company, New York, 1880.

Stock, Eugene, The History of the Church Missionary Society; its Environment, its Men and its Work, Vol. III,” Church Missionary Society, London, 1890.

Stoddard, John L., “Stoddard’s Lectures,” Stationer’s Hall, London, 1897

Surgeon T.T. Jeans, R.N., “Badminton Magazine of Sports and Pastimes, Vol. V, July to Dec. 1897” 

Tai, En Sai, “Treaty Ports in China: a Study in Diplomacy,” Columbia University Printing Office, New York, 1918 

Talman, Rose H., “Our China Years, 1916-1930,” unpublished notes, provided by Sarah Koeppe.

Temple, Robert, “The Genius of China; 3,000 Years of Science, Discovery and Invention,” Prion Books Limited, London, 1998.

Teresi, Dick, “Lost Discoveries, The Ancient Roots of Modern Science—from the Babylonians to the Maya,” Simon & Schuster, New York, 2002.

Thomson, John, “The Land and the People of China,” Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, London, 1876. Some of the earliest photographs of China, including Amoy.

Thomson, Rev. J.C., M.D., “Historical Landmarks of Macao,” Chinese Recorder, Vol.19, August, 1888

Thomson, John, “The Chinese,” Bobbs-Merrill Company, Indianapolis, Indiana, 1909

Timothy, Richard, “Forty-Five Years in China—Reminiscences by Timothy Richard, D.D., Litt.D.,” Frederick A. Stokes Company, New York, 1916

Warnshuis, Rev. A.L., M.A., “A Brief Sketch of the Life and Work of Dr. John A. Otte,” Amoy Mission, China , 1911

Watson, Alfred T., “Badminton Magazine of Sports and Pastimes, Vol. V, July to Dec. 1897”, Longmans, Green and Company, London, 1907

Webb, John, “The Antiquity of China, Or An Historical Essay Endeavoring a Probability that the language of the Empire of China is the Primitive Language spoken through the whole world before the Confusion of Babel.  Wherein the Customes and Manners of ye Chineans are presented, and ancient and modern Authors consulted.  With a large Map of the Countrey,” Obadiah Blagrave, &c., London, 1678  

Werner, E.T.C., “Myths & Legends of China,” George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd., London, 1922. Fascinating, with excellent color illustrations.

White, Francis Sellon, “A History of Inventions and Discoveries,” C. & J. Rivington, London, 1827

Williams, Dwight, Mrs., “A Year in China, and a Narrative of Capture and Imprisonment, when Homeward Bound, on Board the Rebel Pirate Florida; with an Introductory Note by William Cullen Bryant,” Hurd and Houghton, New York, 1864.   [Williams was the Commissioner of Customs at Swatow, employed by the Chinese].

Williams, Edward Thomas, “China—Yesterday and Today,” George G. Harrap & co., Ltd., London, 1923 Insightful comments on China.

Williamson, Rev. G.R., “Memoir of the Rev. David Abeel, D.D.” Robert Carter, New York, 1848

Wright, Arnold, Editor-in-Chief, “Twentieth Century Impressions of Hongkong, Shanghai, and other Treaty Ports of China,” Lloyd’s Greater Britain Publishing Company, Ltd., London, 1908

Variations on Romanization of Chinese Names

Even into the 20th century, there was no standardized Romanized spelling of most Chinese names.  Amoy was complicated further by the fact that place names were rendered in both Mandarin Chinese and, primarily, Amoy Dialect Romanizations.

厦门: Xiamen: Amoy, E’meng, Hsiamen, Emwy, Hemouy, Hiamen, Emowi 

鼓浪屿 : Gulangyu: Kulongsu, Koolangsoo, Koolangsu, Cullemshoe

泉州: Quanzhou: Chinchew, Chin-chew, Chinchu, Chwanchow, Tsuen-tcheou-foo, Chincheo, Cayton, Zaitun, Zayton, Zaiton, Zaithoum

福州: Fuzhou: Fu-cheuo-foo, Fuchow, Foochow, Fuh-Chau., Focheu

台湾: Taiwan: Teywon, Formosa

郑成功: Koxinga:  Cocksing, Coxinga

福建: Fujian, Fukien, Fuh-kien, Fokyen
www.amoymagic.comBill Brown
Xiamen University