Thursday, September 22, 2016

Doctor Andrew Bonthius in Amoy, China

Ahoy from Amoy (historic Xiamen, China)!

Great news! It looks pretty certain that Gulangyu (Kolongsoo) Islet will in 2017 be designated a UNESCO World Heritage site! And, happily, more and more people are contacting me to ask for (or sometimes share) materials about their Chinese or foreign ancestors in Amoy and Kolongsoo.

The grandson of missionary doctor Andrew Bonthius contacted me in 2011, and even six years later, I've found almost nothing about him, except for a few brief notes about his work in Dr. John Otte's letters.  If you have any information (written, photos, etc.), please share them with us! We need as much material as possible (if possible, originals) to bolster our final claim for UNESCO World Heritage status, at which point we hope to be able to do even more to protect our very unique history.

Update! I've just learned part of the reason I can find nothing about Bonthius is that the Reformed Church of America's records misspell his name! De Jong's "The Reformed Church in China 1842-1951," the definitive book on the Amoy Mission, spells it Andrew Bontius and Andrew Benthius, but  not the correct Andrew Bonthius!

Page 236 of De Jong's book records,

"Legacies, too, were an important source of funds. Thus, a generous legacy provided by Elizabeth Cappon, who served in China from 1891 to 1909, was designated for the reconstruction of Neerbosch [first hospital built by John Otte]. Similarly, as a memorial to the mother of Dr. Andrew Bontius, who served the mission from 1909 to 1914, the family made provisions for a new chapel to serve the Kulangsu hospitals. Like the building it replaced, it served the three-fold purpose of chapel, reading room, and hall for lectures. The former chapel was then converted into a large hospital ward."

Below is the letter from Dr. Andrew Bonthius' grandson (though I delete, of course, his email; if you'd like to contact him, please send me your email address and I'll forward it to him).

Enjoy Amoy!

Dr. Bill

Andrew Bonthius II's 2011 Email about his Grandfather
Hello Mr. Brown.
My name is Andrew Bonthius II.  I am the grandson and namesake of Dr. Andrew Bonthius who was a missionary doctor of the Dutch Reformed Church in Xiamen (Amoy), China from 1909 to 1913.  Mr. John de Velder suggested I contact you in my search for the chapel my grandfather sponsored while he was there.
Dr. Bonthius II was a surgical doctor  who performed many hundreds, if not thousands, of operations for indigent Chinese and taught medicine while there as well as his main task of missionary work. He was an assistant to Dr. Otte who fell ill and died of the pneumonic plague while in Xiamen.  After tending to Dr. Otte during his illness, my grandfather was forced to return home in 1913 due to his own ill health, ending his missionary career.  He did bring with him, however,a wonderful photo album of those years which I have in my possession--handed down to me by my father Reverend Robert Harold Bonthius, Ph D.
missionary doctor Andrew Bonthius Amoy Mission Gulanghu Dr. John Otte
Photo by Amdrew Bonthius II
My understanding is that my grandfather made provisions for a Christian chapel to serve the Kulangsu hospitals for the three-fold purpose of worship, reading room, and lecture hall.  I wonder if you know either of my grandfather's missionary work there or whether or not the chapel is still standing.  He was accompanied by his wife Nellie de Young Bonthius and they had two daughters born during their time in Amoy.
  I hope to hear from you soon.  Thank you very much.

 
Andrew Bonthius
My June 20, 2011 Reply

My sincere apologies for the delayed reply.  I was in Geneva when you sent your email, and my hard drive crashed completely, irrecoverably, and I also lost the emails from that period.  After returning to Xiamen, I put in a new hard drive—and just now saw your email on my other computer. 

I attach a couple of documents that have very brief references to Dr. Bonthius, and also part of a page in “In and About Amoy,” by Rev. Pitcher, which shows him in his three positions.

Regarding the chapel—it still stands.  In fact, the two hospitals, as well as the chapel between them, were recently beautifully renovated by the Gulangyu and Xiamen governments.  It was in terrible condition, and they considered razing the place, but fortunately, they’ve become more and more interested in their heritage.   I attach a photo of the newly renovated hospital complex (which will be a museum), and the chapel is the small white building between Hope Hospital (on the left) and Wilhelmina Hospital (on the right).

I regret that I have no other information about your grandfather (I did not even know he sponsored the chapel!).  If you have information I could upload on the site about Dr. Bonthius (and especially old photos), I would appreciate your sharing them.  The government has much interest in this heritage now—though when I first started writing about it ten years ago, there was almost no interest).  In fact, only last Saturday I gave a lecture from the pulpit of the Union Church (built in the 1860s), which the government spent over 4 million yuan helping to renovate, and will now be used for various Christian and social functions.

Warm regards, Bill

My June 24, 2011 reply to Andrew Bonthius' 2nd letter:

Dear Andrew,

Again, my apologies for the delayed reply.  I’ve been swamped wrapping up this semester’s classes, grades, and preparing to return to the U.S. for the summer next Tuesday (Fresno area).  

I don’t have photos of the inside [of Hope Hospital and Hope Chapel] because the facilities are closed until the work out the details of making it a museum.  I did take some photos of the interior before they worked on it.  It was a disaster, both inside and out.  The Japanese pretty much destroyed the buildings during their occupation, so to see it in its present condition is a great encouragement.  The government spent a small fortune to restore the hospitals and chapel, as well as the grounds.  I do attach a picture of the Union Church’s interior before the government spent several million renovating it.  The hospital and chapel looked almost exactly like this inside (run down, used for storage).  Last Saturday, the Union Church (1860s) was officially reopened, with many leaders (vice mayor, etc.), TV and newspapers, etc. in attendance, and I was blessed to give the first talk from the pulpit (not a sermon, of course—though I did shock them by suggesting we bow our heads in prayer, since it was a church).

Your grandfather would have attended Union Church, as well as the chapel, so I attach photos of the original building, as it was before restoration, and how it looks now.  

Your grandfather would have known Colin Campbell Brown, who studied Chinese on Gulangyu from about 1893-1895, then served 70 km. north in Quanzhou, starting a hospital, pasturing a church, and starting a homeschool that expanded and is today their best school.   Two weeks ago, CC Brown’s two granddaughters visited and I spent 3 days showing them around Xiamen and Quanzhou.  The Quanzhou Evening News (one of S.E. China’s best papers) had an entire page about their visit.  CC Brown wrote 3 books, and I had two but not the third one, so I was happy they gave me the one I was missing.

Two years ago, a former RCA missionary loaned me 8 photo albums from people here during the 1920s to 1952. I scanned about 600+ photos at high resolution, put them on DVDs, and gave copies to the church leaders, the government, and the RCA archives at Holland, Michigan.  They also now have the photo albums in their archives.  Unfortunately, the time span does not cover your grandfather’s stay here, but I have many Hope Hospital photos if you’re interested.  I attach an excellent old photo of the chapel and hospitals, taken by head nurse Jean Nienhius in 1924.    I also attach a page from one album showing photos taken in Hope Chapel of Dr. Holleman’s farewell gathering, and a very nice 1927 photo of the chapel’s interior. When I return to Xiamen in mid September, I will ask the Gulangyu government to let me in the hospital and chapel for photos, though I doubt the interior has had anything done to it yet.

Regarding your grandfather’s photos, it would be great if you could share them with us, as almost all of my photos are from the 1920s to 1952, and the mid 1850s to 1870s.  I bought a high resolution scanner last year to scan the 8 albums of Jean Nienhuis, and I’d be happy to pay for registered air to Fresno and back to you if I could scan them, and provide you and the archives a DVD of the photos.

And if you’d agree, I could post some on the website, which might stimulate more interest about your grandfather.  Many people have made connections through this and exchanged materials and photos (I have all of Dr. Ottes’ writings, by the way, which might mention your grandfather; I could scan them as well).  I’ve been contacted by the descendants of most of the early missionaries here.

Xiamen is applying for UNESCO World Heritage Status for Gulangyu (will happen in 2017!],one of the reasons they restored Hope Chapel and Hospital), and we could really use the photos for that as well.  And finally, I’ve been helping the local churches compile a history of the Amoy Mission here, and the photos would add a lot.  Of course, all photo scans would be marked to show their source.

In closing (sorry this is so long), I put out a book last year, “Old Gulangyu in Foreigners’ Eyes,” with over 500 photos, paintings, drawings, etc., and excerpts from old books, diaries, journals, letters, etc., describing Gulangyu and Amoy from about the 1570s to 1952.  I’d be happy to send you a copy of that.

Thanks again for contacting me.  It is very encouraging.

Bill Brown
Xiamen University
familyxm
Bill Brown Xiamen University www.amoymagic.com

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

Old Amoy China Bibliography & Sources

Ahoy from Amoy (historic Xiamen)!

Classic China books MacGowan Amoy Xiamen Quanzhou Zayton Zheng He Zhengchenggong
A few of my classic China books

Many have asked where I obtained the old maps, photos, journals, books etc. for my last few books on Fujian and Xiamen history and culture. Sadly--virtually none came from China. Most historic Fujian material was destroyed by the invading Japanese in the 1930s and 1940s. And quite a bit was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution when, right here on Gulangyu Islet, they made bonfires of priceless old books and photos and mementos (and bulldozed the over 300-year-old foreigners' cemetery with its beautiful tombstones; they did the same thing with Chinese heritage as well, so it wasn't just directed at us foreign devils).

Happily, though, it's easy to find so much online now. By searching eBay and used bookstores, I've found hundreds of old books, maps, photos, etc. My favorite sites are http://used.addall.com/Used/ and Advanced Book Exchange (www.Abebooks.com -- my favorite, because they twice went to bat for me against unscrupulous  book dealers). These two sites give you the results for thousands of sellers and allows you to compare prices. In comparing prices, be sure to factor in shipping costs. Some sites give very low prices but exorbitant shipping charges.

Nowadays, you can actually download most of these historic materials for free from the Project Gutenberg site (over 50,000 free eBooks) or the Internet Archives, which has millions of old books and documents, as well as classic radio and TV programs (and movies) and the amazing "Waybackmachine"-- 505 billion archived internet webpages--which just proves that nothing is ever truly deleted once it is on the web. A sobering thought.

The materials are scanned by armies of volunteers and quality varies, but the files are fine for text--though the resolution of the photos is too low to be useful. That is why I've bought so many original books--to use the photos. Click Here to see the Internet Archives' scan of John MacGowan's "Christ or Confucius Which? The Story of the Amoy Mission" (1885).

Once you've downloaded some of these millions of free online eBooks, you can send them to your Kindle by using the free Amazon application Send to Kindle. Click Here for an explanation of how to do that (and 7 reasons I now read eBooks on Kindle instead of a phone).

I started collecting books after I tried to get permission to use an old photo from a 100-year-old book at the New York City library. They wanted me to sign a contract promising to use the scan once, explaining what I was doing with the scan and why--and they demanded USD 175! Highway robbery. I politely declined (while, I regret thinking impolite thoughts), and not long afterwards I found the book for sale online for much less than NYC library was charging for one scan--and the book had over 40 photos!

To give you a head start, below are some of the most useful or interesting books that I've found for my research on old Xiamen (Amoy), Fujian (Fukien) and China.

Enjoy Amoy!

Dr. Bill 
Academic Director, XMU OneMBA
School of Management, Xiamen University
Amazon eBook
"Discover Xiamen"

Old Amoy Bibliography
(I've highlighted my favorites)

Abend, Hallett, “Treaty Ports,” Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc, New York, 1944


Allom, Thomas and Wright, the Reverend G.N., “China in a Series of Views, Displaying the Scenery, Architecture, and Social Habits of that Ancient Empire,” Fisher, London and Paris, 1843.


“The Amoy Gazette” (厦门钞报)


“Amoy General Geographical Description, &c.” China Review, Vol. 22, No.3, 1896


Anderson, John L., “Our Horse Races in China,” in Outing, Vol. XVI, Issue 5, 5 August, 1890


Anderson, John A., M.D., “The Opium Question: A New Opportunity,” in Chinese Recorder, Vol. 37,  August, 1906.


Anti-Cobweb Society, “Fukien Arts and Industries: Papers by Members of the Anti-Cobweb Society, Foochow, Fukien, China,” Christian Herald Industrial Press, Foochow 1933. Delightful book; explains why Fujian silk was as good or better than Hangzhou silk, and how our province earned more money from bamboo than from tea, for which we are globally famous.


“Greetings from Amoy; Amoy Mission, 1842-1907,” Pamphlet by Reformed Church of America.


“Asia Journal and Monthly Register for British India and its Dependencies,”; Supplementary Intelligence, Vol. XXVI, July to December 1828, London, 1828 


Baldwin, Rev. S.L.D.D., “Lieutenant Wood on Missionaries in China,” Chinese Recorder, Vol. 20, Nov. 1889.


Ball, Benjamin Lincoln, “Rambles in Eastern Asia: Including China and Manila, During Several Years Residence,” James French and Company, Boston, 1856


Ball, J. Dyer, “Things Chinese; or Notes Connected with China,” Kelly & Walsh, Hong Kong, 1903 


Ball, J. Dyer, “The Celestial and his Religions: or, the religious aspect in China.  Being a series of lectures on the religions of the Chinese,” Kelly and Walsh, Hong Kong, 1906


Band, Edward, “Working His Purpose Out: The History of the English Presbyterian Mission,” Presbyterian Church of England, London, 1948  Rare Amoy photographs.


Barbour, George F., “China and the Missions at Amoy, with Notice of the Opium Trade,” William P. Kennedy, Edinburgh, 1855.


Bax, Captain B.W., R.N, “The Eastern Seas; Being a Narrative of the ‘Dwarf’ in China, Japan, and Formosa,” John Murray, London, 1875


Beach, Harlan P., “Dawn on the Hills of T’ang, or, Missions in China,” Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions,” New York, 1905


Bedloe, Edward, M.D., U.S. Consul, reporting in “Weekly Abstract of Sanitary Reports,” Supervising Surgeon-General M.H,S., Government Printing Office, Washington, 1893


Bedloe, Edward, M.D., U.S. Consul in Amoy, :”Public Health Reports, Vol. 2, January 1, 1881


Beltman, Henry, “90 Years with Uncle Henry,” Robert Schuller Ministries, Garden Grove, California, 1984  Henry Beltman was the indefatigable uncle of Crystal Cathedral's Robert Schuller.


Bishop, Mrs. J.F., “Chinese Pictures; Notes on Photographs Made in China,” Cassell and Company Limited, London, 1900
Panoramic view Amoy Xiamen photo photogaph China early photography


Blakeslee, George H., Editor, “China and the Far East: Clark University Lectures,” Thomay Y. Crowell and Co., New York, 1910


B.N., “The Drum Wave Island and other Verses of the China Coast,” Kelly & Walsh, Ltd., 1904 Delightful poems, though I can find nothing about the author himself. Download it from my website at http://www.amoymagic.com/Gulangyu_poems.htm


Boehm, Lise, “China Coast Tales,” Kelly and Walsh Limited, Shanghai, 1897.  “In the Sixties.”


Bonar, Rev. Andrew A., “Memoir of the Life and Brief Ministry of Rev. David Sandeman,”
James Nisbet & Co., London, 1861.


Boulger, Demetrius Charles, “China—Nations of the World Series,” Peter Fenelon Collier, New York, 1902


Bowra, Cecil A.V., Commissioner of Customs, “Amoy,” in Wright, 1908


Bradford, Ruth P., “The Journal and Letters of Ruth Bradford, 1861-1872, Prospect Press, Hartford, Connecticut, 1938. Absolutely hilarious account of life in Amoy by the high-spirited and spoiled daughter of the U.S. consulate. I love the line drawings.


Breck, Samuel, “Descendants of Aaron and Mary (Church) Magoun, of Pembroke, Massachusetts, Third Edition,” Washington, D.C., 1891.


Breuer, Hans, “Columbus was Chinese, Discoveries and Inventions of the Far East,” Herder and Herder, New York, 1972


Brown, C. Campbell, “China in Legend and Story,” Fleming H. Revell Company, NY, 1907
Brown's two daughters visited me in Xiamen a few years ago and I showed them around their parents old haunts in Quanzhou. Amazing stories; Quanzhou Evening News published a great article on this after I donated Quanzhou several old books.


Bruce, C.D., Colonel, “The Provinces of China”; Reprinted from the National Review (China) as the “The National Review Annual,” The National Review Office, Shanghai, 1910


Caldwell, George W., M.D., “Oriental Rambles,” G.W. Caldwell, Poughkeepsie, N.Y., 1906.


Caldwell, “China Coast Family,” Henry Regnery Company, Chicago, 1953 Amazing story of a Tennessee family of missionaries, naturalists and Amoy tiger hunters in Fujian from 1899 to the 1950s. Download my PDF scan from this page: http://www.amoymagic.com/Amoytiger.htm


Campbell, Rev.W., F.R.G.S., “Education and Work for the Chinese Blind,” Chinese Recorder, Vol. 21, p. 450, October, 1889


Carles, William Le Gendre, U.S. Consul in Amoy, “How to Deal with China. A Letter to de B. Rand. Kiem, Esquire, Agent of the United States, Amoy, 1871.


Chater, Paul Cachik; Orange, James, “The Chater Collection: Pictures Relating to China, Hongkong, Macao, 1655-1860; with Historical and Descriptive Letterpress by James Orange,” London, Thornton Butterworth Limited, 1924

Amoy Fukien China map Emowi Atlas de "I'Histoire General des Voyages", Antoine Francois Prevost
1755 French Map of Amoy (Emowi, Xiamen) Gulangyu (Kolongsoo) and Jinmen (Quemoy) from Atlas de "I'Histoire General des Voyages", Antoine Francois Prevost


"Chinese Recorder", Volume 5, American Presbyterian Mission Press, Shanghai, Volume 5, May


Clarke, Basil, “Chinese Science and the West,” Nile & MacKenzie, Ltd. London, 1980.


Close, Upton, “In the Land of the Laughing Buddha; the Adventures of an American Barbarian in China,” G.P. Putnam and Sons, New York & London, 1924. 


Coffin, George, A Pioneer Voyage to California and Round the World, 1849 to 1852”  Gorham B. Coffin, Illinois, June, 1908.


Cope, Captain, "A New History of the East-Indies: With Brief Observations on the Religion, Customs, Manners and Trade of the Inhabitants...", M. Cooper, London, 1754.


Corwin, Edward Tanjore, D.D. “A Manual of the Reformed Church in America (Formerly Reformed Dutch Church), 1628-1902, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1902.


Cressy-Marcks, Violet, “Journey into China,” E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc., New York, 1942


Gordon-Cumming, Miss, “The Explosion at Amoy,” St. James’ Gazette, in Littell’s Living Age, Feb. 4, 1888.


Cunynghame, Colonel Arthur Augustus Thurlow, "An Aide-De-Camp's Recollections of Service in China, A Residence in Hong-Kong, and Visits to Other Islands in the Chinese Seas," London, 1853


Curtis, Benjamin Robbins, “Dottings Round the Circle,” James R. Osgood & Company, Boston, 1876


D’Almeida, Anna, “A Lady’s Visit to Manilla and Japan,” Hurst and Blackett, London, 1863.


Darley, Mary, “Cameos of a Chinese City,” [Jian ‘Ou] Church of England Zenana Missionary Society, Missionary Society, 27 Chancery Lane, London, 1917


Darley, Mary, “The Light of the Morning,” Church of England Zenana Missionary Society, Missionary Society, 27 Chancery Lane, London, 1903


Davis, John Francis, “The Chinese: General Description of the Empire of China and its Inhabitants,” Vol. 2, Charles Knight & Company, London, 1836


Davis, Rev. J.A., “The Young Mandarin; a Story of Chinese Life” Congregational Sunday-School and Publishing Society, Boston and Chicago, 1896


Dean, William, “The China Mission: Embracing a History of the Various Missions of All   Denominations Among the Chinese, with Biographical Sketches of Deceased Missionaries,” Sheldon & Co., New York, 1859


De Jong, Gerald F., “The Reformed Church in China 1842-1951,” Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Michigan, 1992 This is THE definitive modern work on the Amoy Mission.


Denby, Hon. Charles, LL.D., [Thirteen Years United States Minister to China], “China and Her People: Being the Observations, Reminiscences, and Conclusions of an American Diplomat, Vol. II, L.C. Page and Company, Boston, 1906


Denby, Hon. Charles, LL.D., “China’s Open Door,” Lothrop Publishing, Boston, 1900


Dennis, Rev. James S., “Christian Missions and Social Progress: A Sociological Study of Foreign Missions,” Vol. III, Fleming H. Revell Company, NY, 1906


DeVelder, Walter, “A Missionary Journey Over Nine Decades” (unpublished).


Dobell, Peter, “Travels in Kamtchatka and Siberia, with a Narrative of a Residence in China, Vol. II, London, 1830.  Dobell: Counselor of the Court of His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Russia”.


du Halde, P., “ The General History of China,” (4 vols: London, 1741), vol.1 p.169. 


Dukes, Edwin Joshua, “Everyday Life in China; or, Scenes Along River and Road in Fuh-Kien,” London Missionary Society’s Edition, The Religious Tract Society, 56, Paternoster Row; 65, St. Paul’s Churchyard; and 164, Piccadilly, 1885 This delightful book has dozens of engraved illustrations of Chinese life in Fujian, including Amoy and Kulongsoo (Gulangyu).


Duryea, Rev. William Rankin D.D., “The Amoy Mission,” Excerpted from “A Manual of the Missions of the Reformed (Dutch) Church in America,” by Sangster, Mrs. Margaret E., Ed.; Board of Publication of the Reformed Church in America, New York, 1877, pp.170-209


Ecke, Gustav, and Demieville, P., “The Twin Pagodas of Zayton,” Harvard University Press, Massachusetts, 1935. Ecke, a German scholar, erected two full-sized wooden scaffolds around these two 1000-year-old pagodas and photographed every stone engraving! Amazing book; very rare. Quanzhou government copied the volume in Beijing but I managed to buy a copy myself. This project was written about in "A Race of Green Ginger" (another of my favorites on this list).


Edkins, Jane Rowbotham Stobbs,  “Chinese Scenes and People: With Notices of Christian Missions and Missionary Life in a Series of Letters from Various Parts of China,” James Nisbit and Company, London, 1863  Beautiful descriptions of early Amoy, making comparisons to Scotland.


Edkins, Joseph, D.D., “Introduction to the Study of the Chinese Characters,” Trubner and Company, London, 1875


Edkins, Rev. J., D.D., “Early Forms of Chinese,” Chinese Recorder and Missionary Journal,  Vol. 16, No. 2, March-April, 1885.


English Presbyterian Messenger, Vol 1. 1st May 1845 to 31st December 1847, Hamilton, Adams, and Co., Paternoster-Row, London, 1847


Esther. Joe, “This Is The Way, Walk Ye In It,” Privately printed, Redlands, Ca. 1977


Eve, Paul F. M.D. and  Garvin, I.P. M.D. “The Southern Medical and Surgical Journal Vol. 1, 1845 New Series,” P.C. Guieu Publisher, Augusta, Jan. 1845


Fagg, John Gerardus, Chinese Recorder,Vol. 23,Nov.1892.


Fagg,  John Gerardus, “Forty Years in China, the Life of Rev.John van Nest Talmage,”  Brooklyn, 1894


Fenn, C.H. Rev., "Methods of Self Support,"  Chinese Recorder, Vol. 29, No. 2, Feb. 1898


Fergusson, James, “The Illustrated Handbook of Architecture,” John Murray, London, 1855


Fisher, Lena Leonard, “The River Dragon’s Bride,” Abingdon Press, New York, 1922


Ford, John D., “An American Cruiser in the East, Travels and Studies in the Far East,” 2nd Edition, With an Account of the Battle of Manila, April 30, 1898, A.S. Barnes and Company, New York, 1898    Ford was First Engineer of the Pacific Station, United States Navy.


Forgues-Daurand, Paul-Emile, “La Chinese Ouverte, Adventures d’un Fan-Kouei dans le pays de Tsin,” H. Fournier, Paris, 1845


Foster, John W., “American Diplomacy in the Orient,” 1903.


Foster, Ellsworth, D. Ed., “The World Book,”  Vol. 1,  The World Book Inc., Chicago, 1918.


Franck, Harry A., “Wandering in Northern China,” The Century Co., New York, 1923 Franck wrote large, fascinating volumes filled with priceless photographs.


Franck, Harry A., “Roving Through Southern China,” The Century Co., New York, 1925.


Fullerton, W.Y., andWilson, C.E., “New China—A Story of Modern Travel,” Morgan and Scott, Ltd., (Office of the Christian), 12 Paternoster Buildings, London, 1910.


Gamewell, Mary Ninde, “New Life Currents in China,” Interchurch Press, New York, 1919


Gaunt, Rev. L.H., Ed., “The Chronicle of the London Missionary Society, Vol. VIII, No. 85 New Series,” London, 1899


Giles, Herbert Allan, L.L.D., “A Short History of Koolangsu,” Amoy, 1878.


Giles, Herbert Allen, L.L.D., “China and the Chinese,” Columbia University Press, N.Y., 1902.


Gillespie, Rev. William, “The Land of Sinim, or, China and Chinese Missions,” Myles Macphail, London, 1854  [Gillespie was “For seven years agent of the London Missionary Society at Hong-Kong and Canton, and now minister of the United Presbyterian Church, Shiels, Aberdeen.”]


Goodrich, Joseph King, “The Coming China,” A.C. McClure Co., Chicago, 1911


Gordon-Cumming, Miss, in “Littell’s Living Age,” Fifth Series, Volume LXL, No Feb. 4, 1888.


Gottschall, Terrell D., “By order of the Kaiser,” Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland, 2003


Graves, Rev. Rosewell Hobart, “Forty Years in China,” R.H. Woodward Company, Baltimore, 1895. 


Griffis, William Elliot Griffis, D.D., L.H.D., “Hepburn of Japan, and His Wife and Helpmates; a Life Story of Toil for Christ,” Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1913


Groot, J.J.M., "The Religious System of China, its ancient forms, evolution, history and present aspect.  Manners, customs and social institutions connected therewith," Vol. 1, 1892.   Book 1. Disposal of the Dead. Vol. 1,  Part. 1 Funeral Rites, Chapter 1, The Decease.


Gutzlaff, Karl F. A., “Journal of Three Voyages Along the Coast of China in 1831, 1832, and 1833,” Frederick Westley and A.H. Davis, London, 1834. Wonderful, insightful descriptions of Amoy and its people.


Gutzlaff, Charles, Rev. by Rev. Andrew Reed, D.D., “China Opened; or, A Display of the Topography, History, Customs, Manners, Arts, Manufactures, Commerce, Literature, Religion, Jurisprudence, etc. of the Chinese Empire,” Vol. II  Smith, Elder & Co., London, 1838. 


Haffner, Christopher, “Amoy—The Port and the Lodge,” The Corinthian Lodge of Amoy, No. 1806 EC, Hong Kong, 1997


Hamilton, Alexander, “New Account of the East Indies, Being the Observations and Remarks of Captain Alexander Hamilton, 1688-1723,” King’s Printing House, printed by John Mosman, Edinburgh, 1727

Hart, Robert, “These from the Land of Sinim: Essays on the Chinese Questions,” Chapman and Hall, London, 1901.


Headland, Isaac Taylor, “China’s New Day,” Frank Wood Printer, Boston, Massachusetts, 1912.


Hewlett, Sir Meyrick, “Forty Years in China,” Macmillan & Co., Ltd., 1943. 


Hobson, John M.,”The Eastern Origins of Western Civilization,” Cambridge Univ. Press, U.K. 2004.


Holkeboer, Tena, “God’s Bridge, or the Story of Jin-Gi,” Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, MI, 1944


Hollister, Mary Brewster, “Lady Fourth Daughter of China,” The Central Committee on the United Study of Foreign Missions, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1932


Hughes, George, [Commissioner of Imperial Maritime Customs at Amoy] “Amoy and Surrounding Districts,” De Souza and Company, Hong Kong, 1872


Hurlbut, Floy, “The Fukienese: a Study in Human Geography,” Doctoral dissertation for University of Nebraska, 1939


Johnston, Rev. James., “China and Formosa; The Story of a Successful Mission,” Hazell, Watson, & Viney, Ld. London, 1898


Johnston, Meta and Lena, Jin Ko-Niu—A Brief Sketch of the Life of Jessie M. Johnston For Eighteen Years W.M.A. Missionary in Amoy, China, T. French Downie 21 Warwick Lane, London, E.C. 1907 Heartwarming story of this young female missionary who spent her life on Amoy women's education. Read it at:  http://www.amoymagic.com/jessie1.htm


Joseland, Rev. Frank P. “Our Missionary Districts, Amoy and Chiang-Chiu”, in Gaunt, 1899.


Keith, Marian, “The Black Bearded Barbarian: The Life of George Leslie Mackay of Formosa,” The Missionary Society of the Methodist Church, The Young People’s Forward Movement Department, Toronto, 1912.


Kesson, John (of the British Museum),“The Cross and the Dragon, or, The Fortunes of Christianity in China, with Notices of the Christian Missions and Missionaries, and some Accounts of the Chinese Secret Societies,”Smith, Elder & Co., London, 1854.


King, F. H. ,  D. Sc., “Farmers of Forty Centuries, or, Permanent Agriculture in China, Korea and Japan,”  University of Wisconsin, 1911


King, John W., Master, R.N.,The China Pilot, Comprising the Coasts of China, Korea, and Tartary; The Sea of Japan, Gulfs of Tartary and Amur, and Sea of Okhotsk; and the …”   3rd Edition, Hydrographic Office, Admiralty, London, 1861.


Knollys, Major Henry, “English Life in China,” Smith, Elder & Company, London, 1885


Kwantes, Helen, “She has done a Beautiful Thing for me; Portraits of Christian Women in Asia.”  OMF  Books. 


LaMotte, Ellen N., “Peking Dust,” The Century Company, New York, 1919. Very insightful!


Lawrence, James B., U.S.M.C. “China and Japan, and a Voyage Thither: An Account of a Cruise in the Waters of the East Indies, China and Japan,” Press of Case, Lockwood & Brainard, Hartford, Connecticut, 1870.


Lawrence, Una Roberts, “Lottie Moon,” Sunday School Board of the Southern Baptist Convention, Nashville, 1927


Lewis, Elizabeth Foreman, “Portraits from a Chinese Scroll,” the John C. Winston Company, Chicago, 1938


Liddell, T. Hodgson, “China, it’s Marvel and Mystery,” John Lane, New York, 1909


Lin, Yutang, “My Country and My People,” Foreign Language and Teaching Press, Beijing, 1998. Lin Yutang, from nearby Zhangzhou (two hours from Xiamen) wrote amazing books in English. The greatest 20th century Chinese writer!


Little, Archibald, Mrs. “Intimate China: The Chinese as I Have Seen Them,” Hutchinson & Co., London, 1899 Large, heavy volume chock full of great photographs.


Lockhart, William, The Medical Missionary in China: A Narrative of Twenty Years' Experience, Hurst and Blackett, Publishers, Spottiswoode and Company, London, 1861


Low, Captain Charles Porter, “Some Recollections by Captain Charles P. Low: Commanding the Clipper Ships “Houqua,” “Jacob Bell,” “Samuel Russell,” “and “N. B. Palmer,” in the China Trade 1847-1873,” George H. Ellis Company, Boston, 1906


Lowrie, Rev. Walter M., “Memoirs,” Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church, New York, 1850.


Lu, C.C., of Ningpo, China “China and England: a Lecture Delivered at Sheffield University,” Sheffield Independent Press, Sheffield, U.K., 1904


Macaulay, Hastings, “A Cruise in the China Seas,” G.P. Putnam & Company, New York, 1852.


MacCauley, Hastings, Life Among the Chinese, Carlton and Porter, New York, 1861.


MacGowan, John, “The History of Self-Support in the London Mission,” Chinese Recorder, Vol. 18, December, 1887. I have all of MacGowan's books. Very insightful writing and priceless photographs.


Macgowan, Rev. John, “Christ or Confucius, Which?, or, The Story of the Amoy Mission,” London Missionary Society, 14 Blomfield Street, E.C.; John Snow & Co., 2 Ivy Lane, Paternoster Row, E.C. 1895


Macgowan, Rev. John, “Pictures of Southern China,” The Religious Tract Society, London, 1897


Macgowan, Rev. John, “Sidelights on Chinese Life,” Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Limited, London, 1907


Macgowan, Rev. John, “Lights and Shadows of Chinese Life,” North China Daily News & Herald Ltd., Shanghai, 1909


Macgowan, Rev. John, “Men and Manners of Modern China,” T. Fisher Unwin, London, 1912.


Macgowan, John, “How England Saved China,”  T. Fisher Unwin, London, 1913.


Macgowan, John, “Beside the Bamboo,” London Missionary Society, 16 New Bridge Street, London, 1914.


Macgregor, Rev. W. Letter dated January 14, 1875, in The Messenger and Missionary Record of the Presbyterian Church in England, London, April 1, 1875  


Macguire, Theophane, C.P., “Hunan Harvest, Bruce Publishing Company, Milwaukee, 1946.


Mackenzie-Grieve, Averil, “A Race of Green Ginger,” Putnam, London, 1959 My favorite account of foreign life on Gulangyu and in Amoy in the 1920s and 30s. She also wrote about Ecke, the German who photographed Quanzhou's (Zayton's) twin pagodas.


Maclay, Rev. R. S., “Life Among the Chinese: With Characteristic Sketches and incidents of Missionary Operations and Prospects in China,” Carlton & Porter, New York, 1861.


MacPherson, D., M.D., “Two Years in China: Narrative of the Chinese Expedition, from its formation in April, 1840, to the treaty of peace in August, 1842,” Saunders and Otley, London, 1843. 


Manson-Bahr, Sir Ph-ilip, “Patrick Manson, The Father of Tropical Medicine,” Thomas Nelson and Sons, Ltd., Edinburgh, 1962 Gulangyu was called the Cradle of Tropical Medicine because it was here that Manson discovered the link between mosquitoes and malaria. Read more here: http://www.amoymagic.com/Manson.htm


Martin, Robert Montgomery,   China; political, commercial, and social; in an official report to her Majesty’s Government, Vol. II, James Madden, London, 1847


Matheson, Donald, Esq., “Narrative of the Mission to China of the English Presbyterian Church, with Remarks on the Social Life and Religious Ideas of the Chinese, by the Rev. James MacGowan (London Missionary Society of Amoy), and Notes on Climate, Health and Outfit, By John Carnegie, Esq., M.D. of Amoy”, James Nisbet and Company, London, 1866.


Matheson, Mrs., Ed., Memorials of Hugh M. Matheson [1921-1898] Edited by his wife with a prefatory note by the Rev. J. Oswald Dykes, M.A., D.D. Principal of Westminster College, Cambridge.  London: Hodder and Stoughton. 1899


Mathews, Basil, and Southon, Arthur E., “Torchbearers in China, Missionary Education Movement of the United States and Canada,” New York, 1924


Mayers, Wm. Fred, and Dennys, N.B., “The Treaty Ports of China and Japan,” Trubner & Company, London, 1867


McCasland, David, “Eric Liddell-Pure Gold,” Discovery House Publishers, Michigan, 2001.


Menpes, Mortimer, and Blake, Sir Arthur Henry, “China,” Adam and Charles Black, London, 1909.


“Messenger and Missionary Record of the Presbyterian Church in England,” London, April 1, 1875


Metcalf, Franklin P., “Travellers and Explorers in Fukien before 1700,” The Hong Kong Naturalist, December, 1934


Methodist Episcopal Church Missionary Society, “The Gospel in All Lands Illustrated,” Eugene R. Smith, Publisher, New York,  Jan.-June, 1881


Michie, Alexander, “The Englishman in China During the Victorian Period, as Illustrated by the Career of Sir Rutherford Alcock, K.C.B., D.C.L., Many Years Consul and Minister in China and Japan, Vol. I”,  William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh and London, 1900


Millard, Thomas E., “Our Eastern Question: America’s Contact with the Orient and the Trend of Relations with China and Japan,” The Century Company, NY, 1916


Miller, Basil, “Twenty Four Missionary Stories from China,” Beacon Hill Press, Kansas City, Missouri, 1948


Miller, J.Martin, “China Ancient and Modern,” Sanderson-Whitten Publishing Co. Los Angeles, 1900


Morse, Hosea Ballou, “The Trade and Administration of China,” Green and Company, London, 1919.  Ballou was “Sometime Commissioner of Customs and Statistical Secretary, Inspectorate General of Customs.”


Murray, Lieutenant Alexander,[18th Royal Irish]  “Doings in China—Being the Personal Narrative of an Officer Engaged in the Late Chinese Expedition, From the Recapture of Chusan in 1841 to the Peace in Nankin in 1842.” Richard Bentley, London, 1843


Nautical Magazine and Naval Chronicle for 1852,  A Journal of Papers on Subjects Connected with Maritime Affairs, Notes on a Voyage to China in Her Majesty’s Late Screw Steamer Reynard.—P. Cracroft, Commander.   Simpkin, Marshall and Co., Ltd.


Needham, Joseph, “Science in Traditional China,” Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1981.


Neill, Desmond, “Elegant Flower—First Steps in China,” John Murray, Albemarle St., London, 1956
Second only to Race of Green Ginger in describing Amoy life for foreigners in the 1940s. Insightful, humorous.


Nevius, Helen S.C., “Our Life in China,” Robert Carter and Brothers, New York, 1869. Unique insight on how the "3 Self Principles" for Chinese churches (which arose in Amoy in the 1950s, not with Communist China after 1949--the Communists just adopted these wise principles) made the Amoy mission the strongest--and how they were taken to Korea!


Nevius, Dr. John L., Chinese Recorder, Vol. 23, Nov. 1892.


Ng, Chin-Keong, “Trade and Society—The Amoy Network on the China Coast 1683-1735,” Singapore University Press, Singapore, 1983


Oldham, Rev. H.W., “Educational Mission Work in and near Amoy,” Changpu, in Chinese Recorder, June 1908.


Orange, James, :The Chater Collection; Pictures Relating to China, Hongkong, Macao, 1865-1860, Thornton Butterworth, Limited, London, 1924


Otte, Frances Phelps, “The Christian Intelligencer,” Dec. 4, 1901 (from Taitan, Amoy, letter, August 1901).


Phillips, George, “Zaitun Researches” Chinese Recorder and Missionary Journal,  Vol. 8, No. 2, March-April, 1877.


Pinkerton, J., “A General Collection of Voyages and Travels, digested by J. Pinkerton,” 1811, Vol. 8. London, 1812


Pitcher, Philip Wilson, “Fifty Years in Amoy, a History of the Amoy Mission,” Reformed Church of America Board of Publication, NY, 1893


Pitcher, Rev. P.W., Letter from Amoy Boy’s Academy, Kolongsu, Dec. 22nd, 1894,  in Chinese Recorder, Vol.26, February.


Pitcher, Rev. P.W., "The Native Pastorate at Amoy; or Another Object-Lesson in Self-Support," Amoy, July 26th, 1900; in Chinese Recorder, Vol. 31, October, 1900  pp. 503-509, and Nov.,  pp. 550-  "The Amoy Plan."


Pitcher, Philip Wilson, “In and About Amoy,” Methodist Publishing House, Shanghai, 1912
This is THE book on early 20th century Amoy. Amazing book, great photos.


Regnault, Elias, and Doane, Augustus Sidney, "The Criminal History of the English Government: From the First Massacre of the Irish, to the Poisoning of the Chinese," translated from the French, J.S. Redfield, New York, 1843


Richard, Timothy, “Forty Five Years in China; Reminiscences,” Frederick A. Stokes Company, New York, 1916


Ross, Frank, Jr., “Oracle Bones, Stars, and Wheelbarrows, Ancient Chinese Science and Technology,” Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1982


Rudy, Stella M., “Children of China,” Rand McNally and Company, Chicago, 1937


Sadler, Rev. James F., “Chinese Customs and Superstitions, or, What They do at Amoy,” China Review, XXII, No. 6, 1897.


Sadler, Rev. James F., “The Anglo-Chinese College at Amoy,” in Gaunt, 1899.


Sale, George, and others, “The Modern Part of an Universal History: From the Earliest Account of Time,” VOL. VIII, Compiled from Original Writers, Printed for Richardson, S., et al., London, 1759. 


Sangster, Mrs. Margaret E., Ed.; “A Manual of the Missions of the Reformed (Dutch) Church in America,” Board of Publication of the Reformed Church in America, New York, 1877.


Scarth, John, “Twelve Years in China,” Thomas Constable and Company, Edinburgh, 1860


Scott, Roderick, “Fukien Christian University,” United Board for Christian Colleges in China, NY, 1954.


Selby, Thomas Gunn, “As the Chinese See Us,” Fisher Unwin, London, 1901 As useful an insight today as it was 115 years ago.


Shore, Hon. Henry Noel, R.N., “The Flight of the Lapwing, A Naval Officer’s Jottings in China, Formosa and J apan,”  Longmans, Green and Company, London, 1881


Singleton, Esther, “China: Described by Great Writers,” Dodd, Mead and Company, New York, 1912 Delightful insightful book.


Sirr, Henry Charles, “China and the Chinese: Their Religion, Character, Customs, and Manufacturers; the Evils Arising from the Opium Trade,” Vol. I, Wm. S. Orr and Company, London 1849


Smith, D. Warres, “European Settlements in the Far East,” Sampson, Low, Marston & Company, London, 1900


Smith, Mary Augusta Doty, “The China Story: Recollections of a Little Girl’s Life in Amoy, China,” unpublished memoir.  [Daughter of Elihu Doty, RCA Missionary to China, 1844-1864] Great read. Unpublished, but I've uploaded it here: http://www.amoymagic.com/AM_DotyMary1.htm


Smith, Rev. J.N.B., "Money and Missions, in Chinese Recorder, Vol. 29, No. 2, Feb. 1898


Smith, George, A Narrative of an Exploratory Visit to Each of the Consular Cities of China, on behalf of the Church Missionary Society, in the Years 1844, 1845, 1846,”  Harper and Brothers Publishers, New York, 1857.


Soothill, William E., “A Mission in China,” Young People’s Missionary Movement, New York, 1907


Spencer, Cornelia “Made in China,” Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1952. One of my favorite books on Chinese inventions, even to this day--with a forward by Lin Yutang.


Stevens, John Austin, “The Magazine of American History with Notes and Queries, vol. IV”, A.S. Barnes and Company, New York, 1880.


Stock, Eugene, The History of the Church Missionary Society; its Environment, its Men and its Work, Vol. III,” Church Missionary Society, London, 1890.


Stoddard, John L., “Stoddard’s Lectures,” Stationer’s Hall, London, 1897


Surgeon T.T. Jeans, R.N., “Badminton Magazine of Sports and Pastimes, Vol. V, July to Dec. 1897” 


Tai, En Sai, “Treaty Ports in China: a Study in Diplomacy,” Columbia University Printing Office, New York, 1918 


Talman, Rose H., “Our China Years, 1916-1930,” unpublished notes, provided by Sarah Koeppe.


Temple, Robert, “The Genius of China; 3,000 Years of Science, Discovery and Invention,” Prion Books Limited, London, 1998.


Teresi, Dick, “Lost Discoveries, The Ancient Roots of Modern Science—from the Babylonians to the Maya,” Simon & Schuster, New York, 2002.


Thomson, John, “The Land and the People of China,” Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, London, 1876. Some of the earliest photographs of China, including Amoy.


Thomson, Rev. J.C., M.D., “Historical Landmarks of Macao,” Chinese Recorder, Vol.19, August, 1888


Thomson, John, “The Chinese,” Bobbs-Merrill Company, Indianapolis, Indiana, 1909


Timothy, Richard, “Forty-Five Years in China—Reminiscences by Timothy Richard, D.D., Litt.D.,” Frederick A. Stokes Company, New York, 1916


Warnshuis, Rev. A.L., M.A., “A Brief Sketch of the Life and Work of Dr. John A. Otte,” Amoy Mission, China , 1911


Watson, Alfred T., “Badminton Magazine of Sports and Pastimes, Vol. V, July to Dec. 1897”, Longmans, Green and Company, London, 1907


Webb, John, “The Antiquity of China, Or An Historical Essay Endeavoring a Probability that the language of the Empire of China is the Primitive Language spoken through the whole world before the Confusion of Babel.  Wherein the Customes and Manners of ye Chineans are presented, and ancient and modern Authors consulted.  With a large Map of the Countrey,” Obadiah Blagrave, &c., London, 1678  


Werner, E.T.C., “Myths & Legends of China,” George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd., London, 1922. Fascinating, with excellent color illustrations.


White, Francis Sellon, “A History of Inventions and Discoveries,” C. & J. Rivington, London, 1827


Williams, Dwight, Mrs., “A Year in China, and a Narrative of Capture and Imprisonment, when Homeward Bound, on Board the Rebel Pirate Florida; with an Introductory Note by William Cullen Bryant,” Hurd and Houghton, New York, 1864.   [Williams was the Commissioner of Customs at Swatow, employed by the Chinese].


Williams, Edward Thomas, “China—Yesterday and Today,” George G. Harrap & co., Ltd., London, 1923 Insightful comments on China.


Williamson, Rev. G.R., “Memoir of the Rev. David Abeel, D.D.” Robert Carter, New York, 1848


Wright, Arnold, Editor-in-Chief, “Twentieth Century Impressions of Hongkong, Shanghai, and other Treaty Ports of China,” Lloyd’s Greater Britain Publishing Company, Ltd., London, 1908



Variations on Romanization of Chinese Names

Even into the 20th century, there was no standardized Romanized spelling of most Chinese names.  Amoy was complicated further by the fact that place names were rendered in both Mandarin Chinese and, primarily, Amoy Dialect Romanizations.


厦门: Xiamen: Amoy, E’meng, Hsiamen, Emwy, Hemouy, Hiamen, Emowi 


鼓浪屿 : Gulangyu: Kulongsu, Koolangsoo, Koolangsu, Cullemshoe


泉州: Quanzhou: Chinchew, Chin-chew, Chinchu, Chwanchow, Tsuen-tcheou-foo, Chincheo, Cayton, Zaitun, Zayton, Zaiton, Zaithoum


福州: Fuzhou: Fu-cheuo-foo, Fuchow, Foochow, Fuh-Chau., Focheu


台湾: Taiwan: Teywon, Formosa


郑成功: Koxinga:  Cocksing, Coxinga


福建: Fujian, Fukien, Fuh-kien, Fokyen
 
www.amoymagic.comBill Brown
Xiamen University
www.amoymagic.com